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SWITCHING & SIGNALLING

INTRODUCTING TO SWITCHING

1. STROWGER WAS THE FIRST AUTOMATIC EXCHANGE 2.SHORT COMINGS OF STROWGER WERE OVERCOME BY CROSSBAR EXCHANGE 3.THEN CAME DIGITAL SWITCHING SYSTEM. HERE SIGNALS (SPEECH OR DATA)ARE SWITCHED IN DIGITAL FORM. THESE ARE SPACE & TIME SWITCHING .

INTRODUCTING TO SWITCHING contd

4 .THE FIRST ELECTRONIC EXCHANGE WAS SPACE DIVISION SWITCHING WHICH USED ONE PHYSICAL PATH FOR ONE CALL. 5. T/A DEVELOPED TIME DIVISION SWITCHING WHICH ENABLED SHARING A SINGLE PATH BY SEVERAL CALLS

INTRODUCTING TO SWITCHING contd

SOME IMPORTANT TERMS . BUSY HOUR :The hour in which max traffic occurs.
BUSY HOUR TRAFFIC : It is the average value of maximum traffic in the busy hour HOLDING TIME : The duration during which equipments are held when a call is made called holding time GRADE OF SERVICE : Allowable lost calls is called Grade Of Service If one call is lost per 500 calls then GOS=1/500 =0.002

INTRODUCTING TO SWITCHING contd

SOME IMPORTANT TERMS .


TRAFFIC INTENSITY :Average number of calls simultaneously in progress. The unit of tfc intensity is Erlang . If S is the sum of holding time during the period T then tfc intensity is S/T PROBLEM : Calling rate per line per day of an exchange of 5000 lines is 6.0 & busy hour tfc is 12 % , holding time per call is 2.5 minutes. Find busy hour tfc in Erlang

SOME ELECTRONIC EXCHANGES

E10B was the first digital electronic exchange . But it had certain drawbacks yThe ISDN and CCS7 signaling was not supported. yThe traffic handling capacity and BHCA capacity was low. In our country where small capacity exchanges were required, CDOT switch (CDOT 128P, 256P, SBM, MBM etc) was installed. It is indigenous technology. Now 256P independent exchanges have been converted into AN-RAX (Access Network Ruaral Automatic Exchange) and they are parented to nearby CDOT SBM/MBM or NT exchange. With this development now all remote ANRAXs can be maintained from the SBM/MBM. BSNL has 44% CDOT switches.

SOME ELECTRONIC EXCHANGES Contd Beside CDOT switch the following switching systems (NT) were inducted in BSNL network. 1. EWSD Supplied by M/s Siemens, Germany 2. OCB-283 Supplied by M/s Alcatel, France 3. 5ESS Supplied by M/s Lucent, USA 4. AXE-10 Supplied by M/s Ericsson Some new Salient features of those NT switches are: They support ISDN, C#7, V5.2, centrex facility. The traffic handling capacity and BHCA capacity are sufficient.

Facilities provided by Electronic Exchanges.

Facilities offered by electronic exchanges can be categorized in three arts. (I) Facilities to the Subscribers. (ii) Facilities to the Administration. (iii) Facilities to the Maintenance Personnel.

Facilities to the Subscribers.


Some Important Facilities to the Subscribers. MFC Push-button Dialing :All subscribers in an electronic
exchange can use push-button telephones, which use Dual Tone Multi- frequency

Priority Subscriber Lines:

These subscribers are attended by the central processor, even during heavy congestion using certain service codes.

Outgoing Call Restriction :This can be easily achieved by

Facilities to the Subscribers. Contd


Abbreviated Dialing:This
dialing all the digits. shortens the process of

Call Forwarding :

The subscriber having the call forwarding facility can keep his telephone in the transfer condition in case he wishes his incoming calls to be transferred to another telephone number during his absence. Subscribers can set up connections to more than one subscriber and conduct telephone conferences under the provision of this facility.

Conference Calls: Call Waiting :The

Call Waiting service notifies the already busy subscriber of a third party calling him. He is fed with a special tone during his conversation.

Facilities to the Administration


Some Important Facilities to the Administration
1.Reduced Switch Room Accommodation: Reduction in switch room accommodation to about 1/6th to 1/4th as compared to Cross-bar system is possible. 2.Faster installation and Easy Extension: The reduced

volume of equipment, printed cards and automatic testing of exchange equipment result in faster installation (about six months for a 10,000 line exchange) Due to modular structure, the expansion isalso easier and quicker.

Facilities to the Administration Contd


3.Economic Consideration :The switching speed being much faster as compared to Cross-bar system, the use of principle of full availability of trunk circuits and other equipment makes the system economically superior to electromechanical systems. 4. Automatic test of Subscriber line :Routine testing of subscriber lines for Insulation, capacitance, foreign potential, etc., are automatically carried out during night. The results of the testing can be obtained in the printout form, the next day.

Facilities to the Maintenance personnel Fault Processing


: Changeover from a faulty subsystem to stand-by sub-system is automatically done without any human intervention.

Diagnostics :Once a fault is reported by the system,


programs are available which help the maintenance staff to localize the fault, who can replace the defective printed card and restore the faulty sub-system.

Statistical programs

:Statistical programs are available to gather information about the traffic conditions and trunks occupancy rate

Facilities to the Maintenance personnel Contd


Blocking:
In case of congestion or breakdown of a specific route, facility of blocking such routes is available

Overloading

: Overloading of central processor in an electronic exchange can lead to disastrous results. To prevent this, central processor occupancy is measured automatically periodically, when it exceeds a specified percentage, audio-visual alarms are activated, in addition to printing out the message. Maintenance personnel have the following options. (i) Block some of the facilities temporarily, or (II) Reduce the load by blocking some of the congested routes.

Security

Constraints of Electronic Exchanges There are certain constraints of Electronic exchange, which should be considered, at the planning stage for deciding between the two systems. 1) Traffic Handling Capacity 2) Power Supply: The power supply should be highly stable for trouble free operation. 3) Total Protection from Dust : All possible precautions should be observed for ensuring dust-free environment. 4)Temperature and Humidity Control

Constraints of Electronic Exchanges Contd 5) Static Electricity & Electromagnetic interference. Due to the presence of static electricity on the body of persons handling the equipment, the stored data may get vitiated. Handling of PCBs therefore, should be done with utmost care 6)PCB Repair The repair of PCBs is extremely complicated 7) Faster Obsolescence : The equipment becomes obsolete before it can possibly complete one third of its life

DIGITAL SWITCHING,CONCEPT OF TIME & SPACE SWITCHING

A Digital switching system, is one in which signals are switched in digital form. These signals may represent speech or data. The digital signals of several speech samples are time multiplexed on a common media before being switched through the system.

To connect any two subscribers, it is necessary to interconnect the time-slots of the two speech samples which may be on same or different PCM highways. The digitalised speech samples are switched in two modes, viz., Time Switching and Space Switching.

TIME & SPACE SWITCHING SPACE SWITCHING : HERE TIME SLOT OF I/C & O/G PCM
HIGHWAYS ARE INTERCONNECTED. SO THERE IS NO DELAY IN SWITCHING

TIME SWITCHING : HERE TIME SLOT IS CHANGED. So there is


delay.

The prime purpose of an exchange is switching i.e.to provide path for transmission of speech between
(1) SUBSCRIBERS IN THE SAME EXCHANGE ( LOCAL SWITCHING ) (2) SUBSCRIBER OF ONE EXCHANGE TO OTHER EXCHANGE ( TRUNK CALL) (3) BETWEEN TWO TRUNK EXCHANGE CALLED TANDEM EXCHANGE.

THE OTHER FUNCTIONS OF AN EXCHANGE ARE SIGNALLING , CHARGING & BILING.

Digital Space Switching contd..

Illustration Consider the transfer of a sample arriving in TS7 of I/C HWY X1 to O/G HWY Y3. Since this is a space switch, the sample will be transferred without any time delay, via the appropriate cross point. In other words, the objective is to connect TS7 of HWY X1 and TS7 of HWY Y3.

Practical Space Switch

In a practical switch, the digital bits are transmitted in parallel rather than serially, through the switching matrix

Practical Space Switch Contd

In a serial 32 time-slot PCM multiplex, all the bits of the various time-slots follow one another. This single wire stream of bits, when fed to Serial to Parallel Converter is converted into 8-wire parallel output.

Practical Space Switch Contd

For example, all 8 bits corresponding to TS3 serial input are available simultaneously on eight output wires (one bit on each output wire), during just one bit period

Practical Space Switch Contd

This parallel output on the eight wires is fed to the switching matrix. It can be seen that during one full time-slot period, only one bit is carried on the each output line, whereas 8 bits are carried on the input line during this period. Therefore, bit rate on individual output wires, is reduced to 1/8th of input bit rate=2048/8=256Kb/s

Practical Space Switch Contd

Due to reduced bit rate in parallel mode, the cross point is required to be operated only for 1/8th of the time required for serial working. It can, thus, be shared by eight times more channels, i.e., 32 x 8 = 256 channels, in the same frame.

Practical Space Switch contd

Since The eight bits of one TS are carried on eight wires, each cross point have eight switches to interconnect eight input wires to eight output wires .

Practical Space Switch contd

For example, to connect 40 PCM I/C highways, a matrix of 40x 40 = 1600 cross points each having a single switch, is required in serial mode working. Whereas in parallel mode working, a matrix of (40/8 x 40/8) = 25 cross point is sufficient.

Practical Space Switch contd

As eight switches are required at each cross point 25 x 8 = 200 switches only are required. Thus, there is a reduction of the matrix by 1/8th in parallel mode working, hence reduction in size and cost of the switching matrix.

Digital Time Switch

Principle A Digital Time Switch consists of two memories, viz., a speech or buffer memory to store the samples till destination time-slots arrive, and a control or connection or address memory to control the writing and reading of the samples in the buffer memory and directing them on to the appropriate time-slots.

Digital Time Switch

The writing/reading operation in the speech memory is controlled by the Control Memory. It has same number of memory locations as for speech memory, i.e., 32 locations for 32 channel PCM system. Each location contains the address of one of the speech memory locations where the channel sample is either written or read during a time-slot. These addresses are written in the control memory of the CC of the exchange, depending upon the connection objective.

Digital Time Switch Time switch can operate in two modes, viz., I. Output associated control
In this mode of working, 32 samples of I/C PCM are written cyclically in the speech memory locations in the order of time-slots of I/C PCM, i.e., TS1 is written in location 1, TS2 is written in location 2, and so on

The contents of speech memory are read on output PCM in the order specified by control memory. Each location of control memory is rigidly associated with the corresponding time-slot of the O/G PCM and contains the address of the TS of incoming PCM to be connected to.

TIME SWITCHING (Output associated control )


BUFFER/SPEECH MEMORY

I/C PCM TS4

00 02 03 04 31 00 01 O6 31

OG PCM TS6

CONTROL/ CONNECTION/ ADDRESS MEMORY

TIME SLOT COUNTER

TS04

Digital Time Switch II. Input associated control Here, the samples of I/C PCM are written in a controlled way, i.e., in the order specified by control memory, and read sequentially. Each location of control memory is rigidly associated with the corresponding TS of I/C PCM and contains the address of TS of O/G PCM to be connected to.

TIME SWITCHING (Input associated control )


BUFFER/SPEECH MEMORY

I/C PCM TS4

00 02 03 06 31 00 01 O4 31

OG PCM TS6

CONTROL/ CONNECTION/ ADDRESS MEMORY

TIME SLOT COUNTER

06

T-S-T SWITCHING
SPACE SWITCH I/C PCM HIGH WAYS O/G PCM H/WAYS HWY0 ,TS4 I/T-0 I/C TIME SWITCH HWY 1 HWY 2 O/G TIME SWITCH TS 10

TS 11

O/T-0

TS4

HWY3,TS6

I/T-3

TS 11

TS 10
O/T-3

TS6

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SPC (STORED PROGRAM CONTROL) EXCHANGE

LINES & TRUNKS


SWITCHING NETWORK TERMINAL EQUIPMENT

SIGNALLING TERMINAL

DISTRIBUTOR

SCANNER

MARKER

bus omc

CENTRAL CONTROL (CC) & MEMORIES

BLOCKS OF ELECTRONIC EXCHG 1. Terminal Equipment: Subscribers & Trunk ccts are terminated here. 2.Switching Network : It may be time or space switching. 3.Switching processors :Consists of processors & memories 4. Switching Peripherals::: (scanner,distributer & marker ) interface between control system , trml equipment & switching n/work 5. OMC.

Scanner :To detect & inform CC of all events Marker : It sets up & release path through switching network under control of CC. Distributor :It is the buffer between high speed CC & slow speed signalling terminal ccts. It operates on trunks & svc circuits under CC.

BLOCKS OF ELECTRONIC EXCHG contd

BLOCKS OF ELECTRONIC EXCHG contd

Function of subscriber line interface :


B:BATTERY FEED. O:OVERLOAD PROTECTION R:RINGING,S:SUPERVISION OF LOOP STATUS C:CODEC (A/D, D/A CONVERTER) H:HYBRID , T :TESTING.

RSU (Remote Switching Unit )


Standalone RSU : All exchanges have this facility while in case of main link with the exchange is down subscribers of RSU can call among themselves. In 5ESS & CDOT Exchanges in standalone condition metering is done while in case of OCB-283 and EWSD metering is not possible.

Signaling in Telecom Network

The term signaling consists of a word signal, which means indication about some information.

Signaling in Telecom Network

The procedure for transfer of the signal between two nodes/points in telecom network is known as signaling.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd


1)Subscriber Signaling: Signaling systems used between the exchange and subscriber equipment 2) Trunk Signaling :Trunk signaling are signals used between public exchanges. They are used to connect exchanges.
exchg1 Subscriber Signaling exchg2

Trunk signaling

Subscriber Signaling

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


Subscriber Line signalling 1) Calling Subscriber Line Signaling: In automatic exchanges the power is fed over the subs loop by the centralized battery at the exchange. Normally, it is 48 V. The power is fed irrespective of the state of the subscriber, viz., idle, busy or talking.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd. Subscriber Line signalling 2) Call report When the subscriber is idle, the line impedance is high. The line impedance falls, as soon as, the subscriber lifts the hand-set, resulting in increase of line current. This is detected as a new call signal.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd..


Call connection 1) A request for originating a call is initiated when the calling subscriber lifts the handset.(off hook) 2) The exchange (after verification of subs status & connecting an appropriate equipment to receive the address information ) sends dial-tone signal to the calling subscriber to start dialing. 3) When the calling subscriber dials the number, the called number is transmitted to the exchange,

Signaling in Telecom Network contd..

4)The address receiver is disconnected after the receipt of complete address. The exchange sends any one of the following signals.

If the called number is free, the exchange sends ringing current to him (This is typically 25 or 50Hz with suitable interruptions.) & Ring-back tone to the calling subscriber otherwise busy tone or announcement if the called subscriber is busy.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd..


5) When the called subscriber, lifts the hand-set on receipt of ring, the line impedance goes low. This is detected by the exchange which cuts off the ringing current and ring-back tone and establishes a connection between the calling and called subscribers.

6) 7)

In case trunk call the originating exchange seizes an idle trunk ckt which is connected to a digit register at the terminating exchange. The originating exchange begins to send digits & above steps are followed as before.
Ring back, tone and ringing current are always transmitted from the called subscriber local exchange and busy tone and recorded announcements, if any, by the equipment as close to the calling subscriber as possible to avoid unnecessary busying of equipment and trunks.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


3)Address Signal : (Means Dialing) : It is two types.
A) Decadic Dialling & B)Multi frequency Push-button Dialling

The address digits may be transmitted as a sequence of interruption of the DC loop by a rotary dial or a decadic push-button key pad. The number of interruption (breaks) indicate the digit, exept 0, for which there are 10 interruptions. The rate of such interruptions is 11 per second and the make/break ration is 1:2. There has to be a inter-digital pause of a few hundred milliseconds to enable the exchange to distinguish between consecutive digits. This method is, therefore, relatively slow.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd

B)Multi frequency Push-button Dialling

It uses two sets of four voice frequencies. Pressing a button (key), generates a signal comprising of two frequencies. one from each group. Hence, it is also called Dual-Tone Multi-frequency (DTMF) dialling. By this method, the dialling time is reduced and almost 10 digits can be transmitted per second.
Key pad : (1209+697 FOR 1 ,1336+697 FOR 2 LIKE THIS) 1209HZ 1336HZ 1477HZ 1 4 7 2 5 8 0 3 6 8 #

697HZ 770HZ 852HZ 941 HZ

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


5) Release signal When the calling subscriber releases i.e., goes on hook, the line impedance goes high. The exchange recognizing this signal, releases all equipment involved in the call. This signal is normally of more than 500 milliseconds duration. 6) Permanent Line (PG) Signal Permanent line or permanent glow (PG) signal is sent to the calling subscriber if he fails to release the call even after the called subscriber has gone on-hook and the call is released after a time delay. The PG signal may also be sent, in case the subscriber takes too long to dial. It is normally busy tone.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


Inter exchange signaling or trunk signaling: The Exchanges are to provide certain signaling facilities :: 1) The originating exchange should be able to call the required exchange. 2) Return of supervisory signal to the originating exchange when called subscriber answers & called subscriber clears 3) Maintaining engaged condition of the o/g exchange till the calling party clears.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


Inter exchange signaling or trunk signaling: It is two types: 1)Line signaling (Supervision Signaling ) 2) Register signaling ( Address signaling) Line signaling (Supervision Signaling ):Is used to control and

monitor the status of the transmission circuits. It is concerned with conveying information on the state of the line or channel, such as on-hook, off-hook i.e. seizure signal and idle state signal. This signals do not contain any specific subscriber information such as the directory number. number.
Register Signaling ( is also called Address Signaling ) It is used to transfer the specific subscriber information necessary to connect the calling party to the called party. This signaling party. is related to a certain call. Examples of register signaling information call. are the called party's directory number and the calling party's category. category.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


DIFFERENT TYPES OF LINE SIGNALLING 1) RING DOWN SIGNALLING : In this method 17 Hz ringing current is sent on the junction by the O/G exchange. exchange. 2) DC SIGNALLING : The simplest cheapest, and most reliable system of signaling on trunks, was DC signaling, also known as metallic loop signaling, exactly the same as used between the subscriber and exchange, i.e., LINE LOOP IS MADE OR BROKEN CORRESPONDING CKT SEIZER OR RELEASE ( OFF/ON-HOOK SIGNAL OF THE SUBSCRIBER.) OFF/ONSUBSCRIBER.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


E & M Signals E & M lead signaling may be used for signaling on per-trunk basis. perbasis. An additional pair of circuit, reserved for signaling is employed. One employed. wire is dedicated to the forward signals ((M-Wire for transmit or mouth) ((Mwhich corresponds to receive or R-lead of the destination exchange, and the other wire dedicated to the backward signals (E-wire for receive or (Eear) which corresponds transmit or send wire or S-Lead of the destination exchange. exchange. HERE SIGNAL IN ONE PAIR & SPEECH ON OTHER PAIR. PAIR. SPEECH

M (MOUTH) E (EAR)

E (EAR) M (MOUTH)

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


REGISTER SIGNALLING : TRUNK REGISTER IS AN ADDRESS DIGIT RECEIVER . THIS SIGNAL IS USED FOR TRANSMITTING ADDRESS INFORMATION. INFORMATION. REGISTER SIGNALS ARE INTERCHANGED BETWEEN REGISTERS DURING A PHASE BETWEEN RECEIPT OF TRUNK SEIZURE SIGNAL & THE EXCHANGE SWITCHING TO THE SPEECH PHASE. PHASE.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


Compelled Signalling : The term Compelled Signalling refers to the case where receipt of each signal needs to be explicitly acknowledged before the next signal is able to be sent. R2 register signalling is Example of compelled signalling.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


R2 Signalling CCITT standardized the R2 signaling system to be used on national and international routes. However, routes. the Indian environment requires lesser number of signals and hence, a slightly modified version is being used. used. There is a provision for having 15 combinations using two out of six frequencies viz., 1380, 1500, 1620, 1740, 1860 and 1980 Hz, for forward viz. 1380, 1500, 1620, 1740, signals and another 15 combination using two out of six frequencies viz., viz. 1140,1020, 900, 780, 1140,1020, 900, 780, 660 and 540 Hz, for backward signals. In India, the signals. higher frequency in the forward group i.e., 1980 Hz, and the lower frequency in the backward group, i.e., 540 hz, are not used. This is why used. it is called mod R2 signalling. signalling.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd. Digital signaling: This class of signaling is normally used in digital media of transmission of telecom network. It is of two types. 1. Channel Associated signaling (CAS) 2. Common Channel Signaling (CCS)

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.

Channel Associated Signaling:


A signaling system is called CAS when the location of the signaling information is related directly to the user voice/data or . In the 30 channel PCM link (also called 2Mb link), a frame consists of 32 timeslots. Of the 32 timeslots, 30 channels are used to transport user voice/ data, one channel (timeslot 0) is used for timing, status and synchronization. One channel (timeslot 16) is used to carry signaling information Every timeslot consists of 8 bits.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd. FRAME O :(Ist Frame Of a Multi Frame)

TS-0

FAW

TS-1 to TS -15 SPEECH

TS-16

MFAW

TS-17 to TS-31 SPEECH

Signaling in Telecom Network contd. FRAME 1:(2nd Frame Of a Multi Frame)

TS-0

TS-1 to TS -15

TS-16

TS-17 to TS-31 SPEECH

ALARM SPEECH

SIGNAL OF TS-1 & TS-17 4b+4b

Signaling in Telecom Network contd. FRAME 2:(3rd Frame Of a Multi Frame)

TS-0

FAW

TS-1 to TS -15 SPEECH

TS-16

SIGNAL OF TS-2 & TS-18 4b+4b

TS-17 to TS-31 SPEECH

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.


FRAME 15:(16th i.e. Last Frame Of a Multi Frame)

TS-0

TS-1 to TS -15 ALARM SPEECH

TS-16

SIGNAL OF TS-15 & TS-31 4b+4b

TS-17 to TS-31 SPEECH

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.

POINTS TO BE NOTED:
One Multi Frame consists of 16 Frames One Frame consists of 32 Time Slots. Every Time slot consists of 8 bits. For signaling only 4 bits are required. So in TS16 signal of 2 T/slots are sent

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.

POINTS TO BE NOTED:
Duration of one frame = 125 micro sec Duration of Multiframe (16 frame)=2milisec ( 125*16=2000 microsec=2 msec).
FAW : Frame alignment word. Faw & Alarm appear one after another . MFAW : Multiframe AW. Comes after 16 frame.

Signaling in Telecom Network contd.

POINTS TO BE NOTED:
Duration of a T/SLOT= 125/32=3.9 micro sec(as frame duration=125mico sec) Duration of One bit ::One time slot=8 bit & duration of one time slot is 3.9 micro sec
As Duration of 8 bits= 3.9 micro sec

So Duration of 1 bit =3.9/8=o.488 micro sec = 488 nano sec

Signaling in Telecom Network contd. CCS (Common Channel Signalling )#7 A signaling system is called a Common channel signaling system when a channel is common for sending all the signaling information of a nos. of users on sharing basis. In this case also TS16 is normally used as common channel i.e. signaling link. All the 8 bits of time slot 16 are used for signaling / control information.

Signalling network
It is made of : 1. SP( signalling point) :Signal source(orig exchg) & signal sink (destn exchg). All SPs are identified by means of a code. Theoretically there can 16384 codes within a network .These are collocated with exchg. 2.STP(signalling transfer point): Switch signaling messages received to another STP or to a SP on the basis of the destination address. At the originating SP ( exchg A ) STP will create SU (signalling unit) I.e. frame. & will be sent through link. This frame will be decoded at the destination STP & sent to SP ( exchg B) 3. SIGNALLING LINK:A time slot of a pcm is used as signalling link. There may be more than one links between two SPs which provide redundancy. All the links between two SPs form a Signaling Link Set.

Difference between cas & ccs#7


Cas 1.low bit rate(2kbps) 2.not internationally standardized 3.shared signalling 4.uses 4 bits so 2^4=16 types of signalling possible 5.less reliable/less fast
Ccs#7 1.high bit rate (64kbps) 2.internationally standaerdized 3. Dedicated signalling 4. Uses 8 bits so 2^8= 256 types of signalling possible. 5. Highly reliable/faster.

DIFFERENT LAYERS OF (STP) CCS#7


IT HAS MAINLY TWO LAYERS : 1.UP USER PART ( LEVEL 4) 2.MTP MEESAGE TRANSFER PART AGAIN MTP HAS THREE PARTS: MTPL3 (LEVEL 3) MTPL2 (LEVEL 2) MTPL1 (LEVEL 1) (FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN NEXT SLIDE)

IN BRIEF FUNCTIONS OF 4 LAYERS :

DIFFERENT LAYERS & ITS FUNCTIONS.


User information MTP L3, where RL is attached MTP L2, where SU is formed MTP L1 , converts the frame into bit stream. According to physical connectivity it is sent over the media.

SIGNALLING UNIT (SU)


SU is formed at MTPL2 with the msgs of UP & MTPL3. SUs are three types : a)MSU(msg signl unit) It contains actual signaling information. That is msgs of level 4 & level3. b) LSSU (link status signal units). Facilitates information exchanges between adjacent SPs about the operational status of the links connecting them. The link status may be normal,out of service etc c) FISU ( fill-in signal units ). It has two functions : 1)It is for ack of MSU.Rx end will send FISU to Tx end. 2) When no MSU or LSSU are passing ,FISUs keep a link active so that all signaling points utilizing that link know that the link is operational.