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Green Network

IERG 6250
Prof. Lian Kuan Chen (
)

Acknowledgement: with materials provided by Francis Yen


Prof. Lian Kuan Chen IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.1
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Green Network related papers


Power Awareness in Network Design and Routing (J. Chabarek, et al, INFOCOM 2008, pp.457-465, 2008) Energy-aware Backbone Networks: a Case Study (L. Chiaraviglio, et al, ICC Workshops 2009,pp.1-5, 2009) Analysis of Power Consumption in Future High-Capacity Network Nodes (S. Aleksic, et al, JOCN vol.1, no.3, pp.245-258, 2009) Energy Consumption in Optical IP Networks, (J. Baliga, et al, JLT, vol.27, no.13, pp.2391-2403, 2009) A Review of Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Networks (K.George, et al, Telfor Jounel, vol. 2, no. 1, 2010)

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.2

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power Awareness in Network Design and Routing


Makes power-awareness as a primary objective in the network design and configuration, and in the design and implementation of network protocols. Power-aware system design Power-aware network design Power-aware protocols

Ref: Power Awareness in Network Design and Routing (J. Chabarek, et al, INFOCOM 2008, pp.457-465, 2008)

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.3

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power-aware System Design


1) Multi-Chassis Systems: Allows separate physical components to be clustered together to forma single logical router. Consists of several line card chassis connected to a non-blocking scalable switch fabric chassis. Solves the bandwidth scaling problem by providing a growth path that does not rely on increasing the bandwidth density and power density. Although the aggregate power consumption increases, the heat load is spread over a large physical area which allows existing air-cooling techniques to be used, at the cost of requiring additional physical space. 2) Alternative Systems: Optical switches provide terabits of bandwidth at much lower power dissipation than electronic switches, which can be almost entirely bit-rate independent. Current Limitations:
Number of ports < 100 (makes them suitable only for the core network) No feasible Optical buffering
Prof. Lian Kuan Chen IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.4
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power-aware Network Design

Offers the opportunity to deploy routers over a set of PoPs such that the aggregate power demand is minimized. Two approaches: Multiple router-level network topologies that can satisfy a given set of capacity robustness and power consumption design objectives. Network can be designed such that power-hungry packet processing operations are limited to a subset of the routers. Current network design, configuration and management practices are based on deploying and maintaining infrastructures that are extremely reliable. Infrastructures that are densely interconnected with many redundant paths using state-ofthe-art high bandwidth routers in the core, lower bandwidth but high connection density distribution routers around the core and even lower bandwidth access routers and switches at the periphery.
IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.5
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

Power-aware Protocols
The most basic notion is to include mechanisms for putting components to sleep. Development of new data link and routing protocols could make traffic profiles more efficient (e.g., auto-negotiate rate or minimum packet size) enable portions of a line card to be turned off if certain features or ports are not in use enable entire line cards to enter a hibernation state which could be an objective of a power-aware routing protocol

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.6

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Energy-aware Backbone Networks: a Case Study


1. Evaluates the possible savings in an actual ISP network topology. Considers a topology which is similar to the actual one adopted by one of the largest ISPs in Italy 2. Estimates the power consumption of nodes and links using realistic figures that have been derived from available products. Proposes a new algorithm which exploits nodes' and links' power consumption to select the set of elements that have to be turned off. 3. Most network capacity has to be fully available during peak hours, traffic variation over time allows to improve the energy efficiency up to 34% during off peak hours.
Ref: Energy-aware Backbone Networks: a Case Study (L. Chiaraviglio, et al, ICC Workshops 2009,pp.1-5, 2009)
Prof. Lian Kuan Chen IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.7
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Physical Topology

Consider a possible network composed by 372 routers: 8 core nodes, 52 backbone nodes, 52 metro nodes and 260 feeders. Links have a cardinality equal to 718.

(virtual topology)

(topology used in experiment)

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.8

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Turning off Technique


Start with all the devices in on state; then we try to selectively power off them. First, go through the ordered list of nodes and check which nodes can be powered off while guaranteeing the network connectivity and the maximum link load constraints at each step: 1) Sort node set in decreasing energy footprint 2) For each node i Turn off node i and all links originating/terminating at i Recompute the minimum hop paths If network is disconnected, power on node i and goto to next node Compute all link ows by routing T If any link is congested then power on node i Similar procedure for the links that are left powered on after the first step. Sort links in decreasing order according to their power consumption. Selectively try to power off them by checking if the connectivity and maximum link load constraints are met.
IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.9
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

Results
Consider both a simple sinusoidal pattern, and a real traffic profile observed on the real network.

Results: Node saving is constant during night, since the connectivity is the tightest constraint, being the offered traffic much smaller than during peak hour. As expected, during the day the node power saving decreases as the traffic increase, since more capacity is required in order to guarantee the maximum link utilization constraint.
P.10
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Seed 1-3: three different traffic


Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

Results

The saving is higher than in the node case since a much larger number of links can be switched off during off-peak hours. During the day instead, it is not possible to save a lot of energy.

Additional resources used to recover from possible faults are not exploited to carry traffic during off-peak time, and then they can be powered down to save energy. During peak hours on the contrary, the saving is much lower, as only about 10% of nodes can be powered off, being the majority of them backbone nodes.
P.11
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

Analysis of Power Consumption in Future High-Capacity Network Nodes


A generic architecture of a highcapacity network node. It is composed of a high port-count switching fabric, a large number of input and output interfaces, a switch control module, and transmission subsystems. High-capacity links between two core nodes will probably be based on optical WDM fiber transmission systems, as is to a large extent already the case in current networks.
Analysis of Power Consumption in Future High-Capacity Network Nodes (S. Aleksic, et al, JOCN vol.1, no.3, pp.245-258, 2009)
Prof. Lian Kuan Chen IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.12
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Four different core node architectures and technologies


Optical packet- or burst-switching node using a large optical packet switch based on SOAs. At the input of the node, incoming packets are first synchronized respectively to become aligned with each other. Contentions can be resolved by using wavelength conversion modules located at input ports and optical buffering at outputs.

Electronic implementation of a packetswitched core node consisting of a large electronic switching fabric and many line cards whose structure.
(1) (2)
IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.13
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

Four different core node architectures and technologies

Circuit-switched electronic core node is shown in Fig. 5. It uses a large electronic cross-point switch and comprises line cards with a simpli ed structure.

Circuit-switched WDM core node comprising wavelength converters at input ports and an optical cross connect that is realized by using MEMS switch.
(3) (4)
IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.14
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.15

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Results and Conclusion

Power savings from 40 to 100 Gb/s linecards are not large for packetswitched because the transmission subsystem (Optics/Phy/MAC) contributes only 12% to the total power consumption. For circuit-switched node, savings of up to 30% can be achieved, while the power consumption of packet-switched line cards can be reduced by only 9% when using the 100 Gbit/s DQPSK format instead of 40 Gbit/s NRZ data transmission

When using current state-of-the-art technologies and approaches, optical nodes consume generally less power than electronic ones. Optical circuit-switched architectures based on MEMS switching devices seem to be the most scalable solution among the four considered architectures with respect to power consumption. Department of Information Engineering
IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.16
The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

Energy Consumption in Optical IP Networks

A network model includes core, metro and edge, access and video distribution networks, and takes switching and transmission equipments into calculation of energy consumption. AT = AI + AC + AMC (1) where AT is the total no. of downstream bits at terminal unit per customer AI is per customer capacities in public Internet AC is per customer capacities in VDN AMC is the multicast video traffic

Ref: Energy Consumption in Optical IP Networks, (J. Baliga, et al, JLT, vol.27, no.13, pp.2391-2403, 2009)
Prof. Lian Kuan Chen IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.17
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power Consumption Model


AI=AP/M (2) where AP is peak access rate in Mb/s per customer, M is oversubscription rate AMC=LB/NTU whereLB is no. of backhaul links from terminal unit NTU is no. of customers sharing a terminal unit

(3)

In core network, the power consumption also includes estimates of increased efficiency in future generation of core router and switches. Assumes that the efficiency improvement of a router/switch is in exponential model, then the energy consumption per bit of a core router (PR/CR) is PR/CR=P0 (1- )t/C0 (4) where P0 is current power consumption of a router/switch, C0 is current capacity of a router/switch PR is future power consumption of a router/switch after t years CR is future current capacity of a router/switch after t years is the annual rate of improvement of state-of-the-art technology

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.18

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power Consumption Model


As power consumption is a function of the capacity required to support a given access rate, estimates of efficiency improvements relating to peak access rate is included in the paper. The Internet traffic (access rate) grows exponentially. A=A0 t (5) whereA0 is current access rate, A is future access rate after t years is per year Internet traffic growth rate Using 2008 per customer public Internet capacity, AI=100kb/s, then AP=1Mb/s for M=10 AI=100kb/s, then AP=2.5Mb/s for M=25 From D. T. Neilson, Photonics for switching and routing, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 669 678, Jul./Aug. 2006 Annual router improvement rate, = 0.2 From Cisco white paper, Global IP Traffic Forecast and Methodology, 2008., traffic growth rate, =1.42

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.19

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Access Rate Estimation

After getting those values, the trends in router capacity and energy efficiency over time is found.

The per customer power consumption in each section of network are calculated using data from datasheets. Cooling requirements are included in calculation. For every watt of power consumed in metro and core networks, another watt of power is required for cooling.
IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.20
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

Access Network

The per customer power consumption, Pa of ADSL, PON, FTTN and PtP is: Pa=PCPE+PRN/NRN+2PTU/NTU (6) wherePCPE is power consumed by customer premises equipment PRN is power consumed by remote node; NRN is no. of customers sharing a remote node PTU is power consumed by terminal unit; NTU is no. of customers sharing a terminal unit The factor of 2 in the last term accounts for additional overheads (external power supplies and cooling requirements) All variables can be obtained directly from datasheets except for the term NTU of PtP network obtained by: NTU (PtP) = min [(total port capacity.-LB)Gbs-1/(1Gbs-1+AT), (switching capacity-LB)Gbs-1/2AT ] (7) The first term is due to the limit of port capacity, the second term is due to the limit of switching capacity. For Cisco 4503 switch, total ports capacity = total no. of GE ports (116) * 1Gb/s = 116Gb/s switching capacity = 64Gb/s
IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.21
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

Access Network
The per customer power consumption, Pa can be calculated by the values of access network parameters:
PTU(kW) ADSL PtP PON FTTN 1.7 0.474 1.34 1.34 NTU 1008 Eq.7 1024 8192 PRN(W) 0 0 0 47 NRN N/A N/A N/A 16 PCPE(W) 5 4 5 10 Technology Limit 15Mb/s 1Gb/s 2.4Gb/s 50Mb/s

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.22

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Metro and Edge Network


the per customer power consumption of metro netowkr, Pm is

where

PES is per customer power consumption of the edge Ethernet switches PGateway is power consumption of a gateway router PPEdge is power consumption of a provider edge router CGateway is capacity of the gateway router CPEdge is capacity of the provider edge router

The first factor of 2 is to include the requirements for cooling. The second factor of 2 is to include the requirements for redundancy upstream of the Ethernet switch.

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.23

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

VDN Network
The model does not include the power consumption to transport multicast traffic through the VDN as the per customer power consumption of this transport is negligibly small. A Cisco 7613 router consumes 4.6 kW and serves a capacity of 120 Gb/s. Assume for a traffic through the VDN taking two hops, the per customer power consumption of the VDN is
(10)

where the factor of 4 accounts for the power requirements for cooling and redundancy, and the factor of 3 is because three routers are transited for two hops.

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.24

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Core Network
A single-rack Cisco CRS-1 core router consumes 10.9 kW and has a full-duplex switching capacity of 640 Gb/s. The per customer power consumption of the core node PC is: (11) where H is the no. of core node hops

The factor of 8 (2*2*2) is because Core routers are provisioned for future growth of double the current peak demand Power requirements for cooling A factor of 2 for redundancy
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.25

Results
In Access Network: Power consumption in access network depends on its capacity and equipments used from equation (6). For a fair comparison of different architectures, energy consumption per bit of each access network is calculated (per customer power consumption/max. access rate AT) . The most energy efficient of access networks is PON for low access rate, PtP for very high access rate.
Max AT (Mb/s) ADSL PtP PON FTTN 2 125 16 2 Power per customer (W) 7.8 12.2 7.6 13.2 Min. energy per bit ( J) 3.8 0.1 0.5 6.6

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.26

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power Consumption of the Internet

The relationship between the total per customer power consumption of the Internet and the peak access rate, for access rates from 1 Mb/s to 400 Mb/s per home, with an oversubscription rate (M=10, M=25), technology improvement rate = 0.1, are found. For Fig. (a) , the total power consumption is based on a PON in the access network and no VDN.
At low access rates, the access network consumes over 90% of the total network power. At an access rate of 100 Mb/s and an oversubscription rate of 25, the core, metro and edge networks together consume 30% of total network power with the WDM links consuming 4.5% of total network power.

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.27

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power Consumption of the Internet


For Fig. (b), the total power consumption is based on a PON and PtP are showed for M=10. At a peak access rate, the power consumption of the routers and switches in the core, metro and edge networks becomes dominant of only 100 Mb/s.

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.28

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

A Review of Energy Efficiency in Telecommunications Networks


Concerning the fixed line networks, more than 70% of the overall power consumption occurs in the user segment (power is distributed) and only 30% is due to the operator OPEX. Neglecting the core network operation, fixed line networks suffer great losses due to cable transmissions, switching/routing, broadband access and data centers whereas mobile networks consume a huge amount of energy for base station operation.

Ref: A Review of Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Networks (K.George, et al, Telfor Jounel, vol. 2, no. 1, 2010)
Prof. Lian Kuan Chen IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring P.29
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power Consumption in Telecommunications Networks


The energy consumption is higher at the access part of the network and the operation of data centers that provides computations, storage, applications and data transfer in a network. This makes clear that an energy efficient architecture should focus on intelligent and efficient access techniques and efficient operation and data manipulation by data centers. In core network, the largest part of energy is consumed for routing/switching, regeneration and processing of data. This imposes challenges for more sophisticated transport techniques, thermal removal from switches or the servers and less redundant data transfers.

RBS: remote base station

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.30

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Power Consumption in Telecommunications Networks


Network-critical Physical Infrastructure

Efficiency at individual parts is an important step for 'greening' the data center but optimization is achieved when the efficiency aims to the overall data center design.

The useful work of data center is associated to a percentage of power of 30% which is delivered to the IT equipments.

Prof. Lian Kuan Chen

IEG 6250 Optical Performance Monitoring

P.31

Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong