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Define entrepreneurship and small business management

the word entrepreneur is derived from the French entreprendre. Entreprendre - means to undertake Meaning - the entrepreneur is one who undertakes to organise, manage, and assume the risks of a business. No single definition of entrepreneur exists and no one profile can represent todays entrepreneur. Brief review of the history of entrepreneurship - dates back to 18th century France (when economist Richard Cantillon associated the risk bearing activity in the economy with the entrepreneur

During the same period - the Industrial Revolution in England was evolving (where the entrepreneur was playing a visible role in risk taking and the transformation of resources) Entrepreneurship is an interdisciplinary concept. It contains various approaches (diversity of theories) that can used to increase ones understanding of the field.

"One who undertakes to start and conduct an enterprise or business, usually assuming full control and risk." A person who takes initiative for a business project, organises the resources it requires, and assumes the risks it entails. The 3 important elements in the definition are: - initiator - organiser - risk-taker

Small Business Management

A small business is a business that is privately owned and operated, with a small number of employees and relatively low volume of sales. The legal definition of "small" often varies by country and industry, but is generally under 100 employees in the United States and under 50 employees in the European Union. In Australia, a small business is defined as 1-19 employees and a medium business as 20-200 employees. In Fiji small business has between 6 20 workers.

Why people go into Business?

The entrepreneurs hours are extremely long Small businesses are risky (failures can mean considerable financial loss) Families of entrepreneurs suffer Many comforts of conventional employment do not exist for the entrepreneur (for example, paid vacation, fixed
working hours, etc).

Some factors which prompts people to go into business:

Independence - has independence from unreasonable boss; rigid rules of the bureaucracy; poorly conceived performance-rating system; etc. Financial Success - many entrepreneurs are attracted by the promise of big returns; your earnings are limited only by your own levels of energy, dedication.

Job Satisfaction - working for someone else can often mean being engaged in tasks that provide no job satisfaction. - the job of entrepreneur provides characteristics such as skill variety, task significance, autonomy - which in turn results in a level of work satisfaction Being in Control - many entrepreneurs resent the idea that someone can control them, make decisions for them. - an important part of the appeal of small business ownership is that the individual can make his or her own decision

Energy Level - making a business succeed requires work - lots of hard work. - entrepreneurs typically have the energy level necessary to accomplish great amounts of work The Need to Achieve - one human quality or trait that is nearly synonymous with entrepreneurship

Skills and motivation factors needed for management

The major characteristics of entrepreneurs that have been listed by many commentators include the following. Self confident and multi-skilled. Confident in the face of difficulties and discouraging circumstances. Innovative skills.

Results-orientated. A risk-taker. Total commitment.

Others include:

Achievement Orientation Strong Verbal and Numerical Skills Selling Skills Problem Solving Abilities Strategic Planning Perseverance

What is a business plan?

A comprehensive, written description of the business of an enterprise. It is a detailed report on a company's products or services, production techniques, markets and clients, marketing strategy, human resources, organization, requirements in respect of infrastructure and supplies, financing requirements, and sources and uses of funds. Its main purpose is to present the future of an enterprise. Also describes the past and present status of a business It is a crucial element in any application for funding, whether to a venture capital organization or any other investment or lending source.

It should be complete, sincere, factual, well structured and reader-friendly It is normally updated annually and looks ahead for a period of usually three to five years, depending on the type of business and the kind of entity. It also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community. When the existing business is to assume a major change or when planning a new venture - a 3 to 5 year business plan is essential

Need for a business plan

There are many important reasons for drawing up a business plan 1. Getting an integrated view of your business.

a. It helps you to identify better your target clients, outline your market segment, b. shape your pricing strategy and define the competitive conditions under which you must operate in order to succeed. c. ensures that all these considerations are consistent and properly harmonized. d. the business plan process often leads to the discovery of a competitive advantage or new opportunities as well as deficiencies in the plan.

2. Mutual understanding within the management team. 3. Determining financial needs and applying for funds 4. Approval from board of directors/shareholders

a.using it as a basis for getting approvals

5. Recruiting. 6. Deriving objectives for employees 7. Informing employees 8. Informing lenders. 9. Informing partners.

Who reads business plans?

Some of the most important target readers may be potential lenders or investors. If we are looking for outside financing to develop our business, there are many possible sources we can approach with our business plan.

1.Commercial Banks 2.Private investment funds 3.Development funds 4.Multilateral development institutions. 5.Private investors. 6.Technical assistance credits/grants

Who prepares a business plan?

Who contributes to the preparation of a business plan depends very much on the type of business and the structure and size of the entity. In a very small company, the planning work and the drafting of the document have to be done by the managers and owners themselves. In larger organizations, contributions have to come from different people. Company employees contributing to the preparation of a business plan are typically:

The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) The marketing and sales manager The development and production managers The financial manager

Other enterprises which do not have adequate internal resources and hire external consultants to guide and facilitate the business planning process.

Steps in the preparation of business plan

Dynamic planning should be an integral part of managing your business. Most successful ventures prepare a three-to-five year business plan every year Involves updating last years business plan by comparing the planned figures and goals with results achieved and taking into account changes, new information, experiences and new ideas.

1. Assessing the situation

2. Developing a mission

3. Getting ready

4. Setting goals

5. Working out the business plan

6. Setting employee objective

7. Monitoring the process

a. Assessing the situation

assessment of how your customers, partners, competitors and suppliers view your business. To analyse the business current status or position To analyse the important main strengths and weaknesses Identifying areas where improvement is possible b. Developing a mission the most valuable part of the dynamic planning process since it can change or reconfirm the direction of your business.

Getting ready
Starting the actual work of preparing the business plan. Includes: Appointing a coordinator Hiring a facilitator Defining tasks Identifying team members. Gathering information

d. Setting goals
Is a prerequisite for the preparation of the business plan goals should be time-bound, realistic and measurable.

e. Working out the business plan

basically involves synthesizing and harmonizing your marketing, sales, development, manufacturing, operations and financing targets in such a way as to enable the enterprise to meet its overall objectives. This is usually conducted in an iterative process until full consistency of all elements of the business is achieved. f. Setting employee objectives One of the most important actions after your business plan has been completed Use it as a basis for setting the objectives of units and individuals in your firm Individual objectives (for every employee) should be fixed in writing and the results of the work should be monitored and assessed periodically. These should form the basis for the financial compensation of the employee.

Role of employees in the business planning process

Mission goals communication Information, ideas objectives

g. Monitoring the process

Systematic monitoring of the implementation of your plan is a very important Action plans, monitoring systems and constant feedback should be integrated to ensure successful implementation of the plan and achievement of its objectives If key assumptions change, the plan must be adjusted. Accordingly, mid-term corrections are recommended. The key to maximizing the benefits of dynamic planning lies in implementation, action and keeping the plan up to date.


The dynamics of change is a critical part of the entire change process in any organization Any system or implementation plan, especially changes in the business environment have numerous dynamics The efficient identification and management of such dynamics are essential for the successful implementation of the change itself The dynamics not only attribute to the change but also to the overall business process

Under this change the dynamics involving the restructuring of the top level management and the overall restructuring of the organization are discussed The management structure is actually evolving from the existing structure rather than a revolutionary approach where the entire system is created from scratch The short term and mid-term objectives described in the business plan justify that the changes to the management structure is an evolutionary process.

Structural Implications
This is the category where the restructuring of the senior management is analysed The major element is the definition of the role of each individual in the senior management team The dynamics of the senior management in the reorganization directly effects the overall evolution process itself

Integration is the process of linking the senior management with the middle management and the operational staff in order to effectively implement the proposed changes in the organization It contribute to the actual deployment of the management reorganization through the restructuring of the middle management and the operational staff

It is a critical element for implementing the change process Recruitment of personnel to accomplish the changes is necessary in order to achieve the objectives of the organization Training programme can be organized for the existing personnel in order to accomplish the company's new ventures

The life cycle changes are purely operational and focus upon the operational staff and their contribution to the production It will not only reflect upon the operational efficiency and motivation of the staff but mainly attribute to the management efficiency and the success of the changes introduced

Single Workshop
It is a dynamic element of the life cycle Management of the work shop by the manager and the subordinates under one roof is not only an initiative to achieve equal treatment and transparent operation of the production process but also increase the team working skills of the staff

Cross Training of Staff

The change process of the production life cycle can be accomplished by cross training of the existing staff, which can be easily accomplished through the single work shop approach. It will create room for accommodating any new changes that might contribute to the operational efficiency of the system. Dynamic nature of the cross training of staff can be effectively deployed during the change process

Products & Services

It is necessary to treat this as a dynamic element because of the following two reasons Products that are produced in the company's workshop requires highly skilled and motivated personnel The need for reducing wastage during production process that contributes to cost savings

It is important to accomplish the hygiene, health and safety objectives of the organization in order to effectively motivate the personnel for effective performance in the workshop The company can increase its productivity by nurturing the efficiency of the operational staff through continuous performance reviews, support and motivating

Causes for small business failures

Why Small Businesses Fail

Success in business is never automatic. It isn't strictly based on luck - although a little never hurts. It depends primarily on the owner's foresight and organization.

Common reasons for failure

Lack of experience Insufficient capital (money) Poor location Poor inventory management Over-investment in fixed assets Poor credit arrangements Personal use of business funds Unexpected growth

Choosing a business that isn't very profitable. Even though you generate lots of activity, the profits never materialize to the extent necessary to sustain an on-going company.

Inadequate cash reserves. If you don't have enough cash to carry you through the first six months or so before the business starts making money, your prospects for Success are not good. Consider both business and personal living expenses when determining how much cash you will need.

Failure to price your product or service correctly. You must clearly define your pricing strategy. You can be the cheapest or you can be the best, but if you try to do both, you'll fail.

Overdependence on a single customer Putting up with inadequate management While poor management is cited most frequently as the reason businesses fail, inadequate or ill-timed financing is a close second.


The main success factor is that

Why have you chosen this business?

Also think are you passionate about this particular business, or just about being in business?


Education and experience are both important success factors. Identify where you are deficient and acquire what you don't have.

Because there are highly educated business failures, as well as many highly successful business owners who are not very well educated. The best candidates for success are those who have adequate education and

Without determining your key success factors, you run the risk of needing to make expensive changes of direction later on as you have not aligned your objectives to the success of your business. You must sit down and think what you really need to do to make your dream business a success.



Evaluate each and every product that you sell and determine if you are selling them profitably. If not, you may need to identify how to make its current sales profitable, whether by reducing your costs for that product or increasing its price.


COSTS. A lower overhead should be a continuing objective for your business. You can cut costs by evaluating your insurance needs, reducing your reliance on outside consultants and service providers, or cutting down unnecessary supplies and equipment.

3. DEVELOP NEW PRODUCTS WHILE MAINTAINING THE HIGH QUALITY OF EXISTING PRODUCTS. Ensure that your products are created or chosen in response to the needs of your customers. Ask for customer feedback through surveys or direct interaction with them to find out what are the items that they need and expect from your business.

4. FIND AND RETAIN HIGH-VALUE CUSTOMERS. The 80-20 rule of business states that 80 percent of your business will come from 20 percent of your customers. It is therefore critical that you exert the extra effort to ensure that you retain the business of your top customers.

5. CREATE AND MAINTAIN THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. A very important success factor needed to sustain your business is to provide the best service to your customers. Satisfied customers are more likely to come back to you. Better yet, give your customers more than they expect.

You have to be passionate about your business to be successful, but take care not to fall in love with the wrong business

Feasibility Planning

Feasibility Planning??
A feasibility planning is a brief formal analysis of a prospective business idea.

The goal is to give the entrepreneur a clear evaluation of the potential for sales and profit for a particular idea.

A feasibility plan is that part of a business plan that will help you and your investors determine if your idea will thrive.

Steps in conducting a feasibility planning

Determine whether a certain plan of action is feasiblethat is, whether or not it will work, and whether or not it is worth doing economically.

Focus on the proposed plan of action and provide a detailed estimate of its costs and benefits.

Translating general ideas into measurable goals.

Internal Factors

Infrastructure Project scope Labor relations Project location Project leadership Organizational goal Management approach Technical manpower supply Resource and capital availability

External Factors
Public needs Market needs National goals Industry stability State of technology Industrial competitors Government regulations

Components of Feasibility Plan

Summary of Project Plan Objectives Approach Policies and Procedures Contractural Requirements ( document problematic areas ) Project Schedule Resource Requirements Performance Measures Contingency Plans Tracking , Reporting , and Auditing

Project Development Lifecycle

Planning Phase
Define problem

Confirm project feasibility

Produce project schedule

Staff the project

Launch the project

Analysis Phase
Gather information

Define system requirements

Problem Domain Application

Build prototypes for discovery of requirements

Prioritize requirements

Generate and evaluate alternatives

Review recommendations with management

Design Phase
Design and integrate the network Design the application architecture Design the user interfaces Design the system interfaces Design and integrate the database Prototype for design details Design and integrate the system controls

Implementation Phase
Construct software components

Verify and test

Convert data

Train users and document the system

Install the system

Support Phase
Maintain the system

Enhance the system

Support the users

Help desk

Technology Development

Obsolescence of today s products



Organizational Objective

Organization Organizational Use of Technology

Organizational Objective

Preventing of Failures

Project Feasibility
Measure of how beneficial or practical the development of an information system will be to an organization . Process by which feasibility is measured Continuing process of feasibility assessment

Tests of feasibility

Technical feasibility Operational feasibility Schedule Feasibility Economic feasibility

Scope of Feasibility Analysis

Need Analysis Process Work Engineering & Design Cost Estimate Financial Analysis Project Impacts Conclusions and Recommendations

Feasibility Dangers

project that was once feasible may not remain so - why not? lFeasibilities can often conflict !


can you do if the project is not feasible on all levels?

solution can often be the most expensive lgood operational feasibility lpoor economic feasibility

Managing Expectations
Often most difficult aspect of a project Tool for balancing priorities Rows in matrix are project dimensions :
Cost Schedule Scope / Quality

Managing Expectations
Columns in matrix are the priorities :
Max or Min : most important Constrain : median importance Accept : lowest importance

Impossible to optimize all simultaneously ! Rule : 1 check per row & column

Expectation Management
Priorities Max or Min Constrain Accept

Cost: $20B Schedule: Deadline 12/1969 Scope / Quality: Man on the moon, return safely X

Frequent Causes of Failures

Taking shortcuts with methodology Cost of fixing errors , finding an error in :
Requirements : $1 , 000 Design : $2 , 500 Coding : $6 , 000 Testing : $25 , 000 Implementation : $75 , 000 when / why do these occur?

Frequent Causes of Failures

Scope & Feature Creep
can be both good and bad , how? are mgmt intentions clear?

Tests of Feasibility
Operational Feasibility bHow well work in the

will the solution organization?

Technical Feasibility bHow practical is the technical solution? bHow available are technical resources and expertise?

Tests of Feasibility
Schedule Feasibility bHow reasonable is the project timetable? Economic Feasibility bHow cost-effective is project or solution? bCost-benefit analysis


Operational Feasibility
Questions to Ask bIs the problem worth solving? b bWill the solution to the problem work? b bHow do end users and management feel about the solution? b bHas a usability analysis been conducted?

Technical Feasibility
Questions to Ask bIs the proposed solution practical? b bDo we possess the necessary technology? b bDo we possess the necessary technical expertise? b bIs the schedule reasonable?

Economic Feasibility
Cost - benefit analyses bHow much will the system cost?
hDevelopment costs hOperation costs hMaintenance and support costs

bDo we possess the necessary technology? bDo we possess the necessary technical expertise? bIs the schedule reasonable?

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Cost Analysis
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Benefit Analysis
Benefit analyses bTangible benefits can be easily quantified . b bMeasured in terms of monthly or annual savings , or of profit to organization b bIntangible benefits more difficult to quantify .

Benefit Analysis

ngible Benefits Intangible Benefits ewer processing Improved customer goodwill errors Improved employee morale ncreased throughput time ecreased responseBetter service to communit steps limination of jobBetter decision - making ncreased sales educed credit losses educed expenses

Economic Feasibility
Payback analysis bHow long will it take to recoup the costs of this project? b hReturn on investment ( ROI ) analysis b bNet present value analysis

Feasibility Analysis
Compare candidate systems on basis of several characteristics bBetter analysts always consider multiple solutions

Candidate Systems Matrix

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Feasibility Analysis Matrix

Feasibility Analysis Feasibility Criteria Operational Feasibility Functionality: To what degree does the candidate solution benefit the organization? Political: How well will the solution be received by users? Management? Weight 30% Only supports Fully supports Members Services required requirements and functionality current business processes would have to be modified Score: 60 Score: 100 30% Current release of Current technical Platinum Plus is staff only has 1.0; only on market Powerbuilder 6 weeks experience. Staff thinks Access app is simple. Score: 50 Score: 95 30% $350,000 $418,040 $400,000 4.5 years 3.5 years 3.3 years $210,000 $306,748 $325,500 See attachment A See Attachment A See Attachment A Score: 60 Schedule Feasibility Assessment of how long the solution will take to design and implement. 10% Less than 3 months Score: 95 Ranking 60.5 9-12 months Score: 80 92 9 months Score: 85 83.5 Score: 85 Score: 90 Same as Candidate #2 Candidate 1 Candidate 2

Candidate 3

Score: 100

Technical Feasibility Technology: Assessment of maturity, availability, ability to acquire, and desirability of computer technology needed to support the candidate. Expertise: Assessment of the technical expertise needed to develop, operate, and maintain the candidate system Economic Feasibility Cost to Develop Payback period (discounted) Net Present Value Detailed Calculations

Score: 60

Stages of growth model

Stage I Initiation

In this stage, information technology is first introduced into the organization. According to Nolans article in 1973, computers were introduced into companies for two reasons. The first reason deals with the company reaching a size where the administrative processes cannot be accomplished without computers. Also, the success of the business justifies large investment in specialized equipment. The second reason deals with computational needs. Nolan defined the critical size of the company as the most prevalent reason for computer acquisition. Due to the unfamiliarity of personnel with the technology, users tend to take a "hands off" approach to new technology. This introductory software is simple to use and cheap to implement, which provides substantial monetary savings to the company.

Stage I Key points: User awareness is characterized as being "hands off". IT personnel are "specialized for technological learning". IT planning and control is not extensive. There is an emphasis on functional applications to reduce costs.

Stage ||-contagion

Even though the computers are recognized as change agents in Stage I, Nolan acknowledged that many users become alienated by computing. Because of this, Stage II is characterized by a managerial need to explain the potential of computer applications to alienated users. This leads to the adoption of computers in a range of different areas. A problem that arises in Stage II is that project and budgetary controls are not developed. Unavoidably, this leads to a saturation of existing computer capacity and more sophisticated computer systems being obtained. System sophistication requires employing specialized professionals. Due to the shortage of qualified individuals, implementing these employees results in high salaries. The budget for computer organization rises significantly and causes concern for management. Although the price of Stage II is high, it is evident that planning and control of computer systems is necessary.


Stage II Key points:

There is a proliferation of applications. Users are superficially enthusiastic about using data processing. Management control is even more relaxed. There is a rapid growth of budgets. Treatment of the computer by management is primarily as just a machine. Rapid growth of computer use occurs throughout the organization's functional areas. Computer use is plagued by crisis after crisis.

Stage |||-control

Stage III is a reaction against excessive and uncontrolled expenditures of time and money spent on computer systems, and the major problem for management is the organization of tasks for control of computer operating costs. In this stage, project management and management report systems are organized, which leads to development of programming, documentation, and operation standards. During Stage III, a shift occurs from management of computers to management of data resources. This shift is an outcome of analysis of how to increase management control and planning in expending data processing operations. Also, the shift provides flexibility in data processing that is needed in a case of managements new controls. The major characteristic of Stage III is reconstruction of data processing operation.[1][2]


Stage III Key points:

There is no reduction in computer use. IT division's importance to the organization is greater. Centralized controls are put in place. Applications are often incompatible or inadequate. There is use of database and communications, often with negative general management reaction. End user frustration is often the outcome.

Stage 4-integration

Stage IV features the adoption of new technology to integrate systems that were previously separate entities. This creates data processing (IT) expenditure growth rates similar to that of Stage II. In the latter half of Stage IV, exclusive reliance on computer controls leads to inefficiencies. The inefficiencies associated with rapid growth may create another wave of problems simultaneously. This is the last stage that Nolan acknowledged in his initial proposal of the stages of growth in 1973.


Stage IV Key points: There is rise of control by the users. A larger data processing budget growth exists. There is greater demand for on-line database facilities. Data processing department now operates like a computer utility. There is formal planning and control within data processing. Users are more accountable for their applications. The use of steering committees, applications financial planning becomes important. Data processing has better management controls and set standards.

Stage 5-data administration

Nolan determined that four stages were not enough to describe the proliferation of IT in an organization and added Stage V in 1979. Stage V features a new emphasis on managing corporate data rather than IT. Like the proceeding Stage VI, it is marked by the development and maturity of the new concept of data administration


Stage V Key points:

Data administration is introduced. There is identification of data similarities, its usage, and its meanings within the whole organization. The applications portfolio is integrated into the organization. Data processing department now serves more as an administrator of data resources than of machines. A key difference is the use of term IT/IS rather than data processing..

Stage 6-maturity

In Stage VI, the application portfolio tasks like orderly entry, general ledger, and material requirements planning is completed and its structure mirrors the organization and information flows in the company. During this stage, tracking sales growth becomes an important aspect. On the average, 10% batch and remote job entry, 60% are dedicated to data base and data communications processing, 5% personal computing, 25% minicomputer processing.


Stage VI Key points:

Systems now reflect the real information needs of the organization. Greater use of data resources to develop competitive and opportunistic applications. Data processing organisation is viewed solely as a data resource function. Data processing now emphasizes data resource strategic planning. Ultimately, users and DP department jointly responsible for the use of data resources within the organization. Manager of IT system takes on the same importance in the organizational hierarchy as say the director of finance or director of HR

The major implication of a market research is that the business man could formulate an exact plan to run his business. The assets required, human resource, capital all these could be found out. When new business ventures are taken up, a good market research could help to find the strength ,weakness,oppurtunities and threat facing it and work on it.


Business men could find various promotional activities to boost their business. They could also work on their finance, resource management to improve their business. The data collected could be used as a bench mark to identify other problems and alo for developing new strategies.

There are various steps in planning a new ventures. Establishing goals The first step in planning a new business venture is to establish goals that your nonprofit seeks to achieve with the business. Identify Business Opportunities the next step in the business planning process is to identify and select the right business.


Local Market Study Market study you will be able to identify gaps in existing products and services and unsatisfied demand for additional or expanded product and services Preparing own plan After the study from the data obtained a proper plan is formed and suitable strategies are formulated.

Implementing the plan Next step is implementing plans and objectives for the company to follow and looking at the financial status to check whether the plan adapted is good or not

Marketing research of prestart-up planning

Marketing Research

The systematic and objective process of generating information for aid in making marketing decisions

Marketing research is the process of collecting information on any fact relevant to the market Market research is a systematic collection of information, its analyses and interpretation to strategize some relevant business decision like whether one should enter new markets, whether one should charge premium prices, what kind discounts would be more attractive to the customer etc

Need for MR
To identify the existing needs of the market To decide over introduction of new product or service in the market To direct the business plan To identify the potentiality of the market To understand growth rate of the market Consumer satisfaction

Effectiveness of promotional effort Consumer behavior Price level analyses

This process includes: specifying what information is required;

The Marketing Research Process

designing the method for collecting information;

managing and implementing the collection of data;

analyzing the results;

communicating the findings and their implications.

Information Reduces Uncertainty

I dont know if we should enter the Australia n Market?

Pre-launch marketing

When you start thinking of launching your own businesses, there seem to be a million things to consider :Business names. Price of the product. Product quality. Market structure. Competitors market share. Consumers satisfaction.

The Growth Model

The evolution lifecycle of a business venture, however, are empirically determined from the Corporate Lifecycle Curve to be about six stages, three of which are development stages: Embryonic Stage, The Start-up Stage, Growth Stage.

Embryonic Stage

The initial stage, more accurately the inception state of the development of a venture, focusing on the initiation of the venture is generally known as the [Venture] Embryonic Stage. This stage is characterized by the focus on the development of the Product Technology dimension of the vision innovation space.

The actual object of the focus depends on the development-state of the product on the Product Technology Dimension as noted in the vision analysis. Usually, the dimension development state may be one of two states: The technology has been validated experimentally, or the technology is simply conceptual. In the former state, the object of the focus is on the optimization of the technology dimension; and in the latter state, the object of the focus is on the experimental validation of the dimension to be followed by the optimization.

The Start-Up Stage

By and large, a business is simply the profitably marketing of a product, and this phase of the Start-up Stage is concerned with creating of the capability of being in possession of the products to sell, creating of the business, and the establishing of the procedures or business practices/models on which to rest the operations of the business.

Although this phase seems to entail the making of several decisions, the phase is, by and large, not difficult, but as with every building process, must be thorough managed to set a good foundation before moving forward. The Execution Phase of the Start-up Stage generally focuses on the marketing of the company and products within the initial target market segment of the Embryonic Stage, creating repeat customers, and establishing the business critical mass necessary for the venture to thrive, and is effectively is the Market Entry Phase of the venture evolution. This Phase is the most critical phase of the venture development stages, because this is the phase in which most ventures fail, and has, to that end, been given special presentation.

This phase is the beginning of the onset of the implementation of the Growth Tactics Implementation Plan, hence the business is effectively put into a dynamic state: Relative to the Starting Phase when the venture, in essence, is in an inertial state, starting operations of the venture in this phase gets to put the venture into a dynamic state.

The Penetration Phase generally focuses on the marketing of the company and products to more customers within the market entry segments, and the optimization and implementation of the template manufacturing technology dimension as well as the expansion of production capacity for the newer products to meet the anticipated purchases of the prospective newer customers. The sale of the products to more customers of the initial market segment, otherwise the penetration into that initial market segment, gives this phase it name of Penetration Phase. This phase usually ends with the horizontal growth of the product, as the product is repeatedly customized to meet the needs of different customers within the initial market segment of market entry.

The Growth Stage

The Growth Stage generally focuses on marketing of the company and products for market entry into other target marketsegments as identified in the Growth Tactics Business Plan, expansion of product line consistent with the set of products defined as first generation products of the venture, and production capacity increases for the newer products and variants of established products based the customization during the Execution Phase of the Start-up Stage.

Fundamental of a good feasibility Plan

Mission Statement- A clear statement of your enterprise long-term mission. Try to use words that will help direct the progress, but be as concise as possible.

Goals & Objectives

Five-year goals
State Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Rewarding, Time oriented goals Be S.M.A.R.T. State income / profitability objectives

Purpose of the Plan

Who is requesting the funds? How much is needed? What will the funds be used for? How will you repay the funds? What collateral will be used to secure loan? Why does the loan make sense?

Description of the Business

What type of Business are you in? What Market will you serve? How can you do it better than Competition? Impact of YOUR Management? Changes YOU will make?

Location, Location, Location

Address Leased/owned (Terms/Length) Renovations Needed Describe Neighborhood Complementary/competition in area Expansion capability

Licenses and Permits

Registration with Secretary of State Local zoning regulations Other permits / licenses needed

The Management Team

List owners and key management personnel by name
Include the better half as it is a team effort

Include previous accomplishments and you have many. Summarize your agricultural experience

Present Personnel needs What skills your Employees have Part-Time help to meet changing volume Training needs, costs

Insurance & Risks

Describe Business risks and Insurance to cover risks If new project Describe risks

Market Summary

Market: past, present, & future:

Review those changes in market share, leadership, players, market shifts, costs, pricing, or competition that provide the opportunity for your companys success.

Summarize competition Outline your companys competitive advantage

Financial Plan
Cash Flow Statements-Include all Sources and Uses of cash. Dont forget the loans, the credit card consolidations, etc. Balance Sheets- Assets, Liabilities, Net worth Previous 3 years, (if you have them) Be consistent with your values Income Statement

Profitability of the Operation

Resumes Job Descriptions Maps Letters of acceptance from Coop. Letters from related Department, others as needed Copies of leases, agreements, deeds !!!! Letters of Reference !!!

It is extremely difficult to develop and provide a highquality product or service without conducting at least some basic market research.

Critical Role of Market Research

Market research has a variety of purposes and a variety of data collection methods might be used for each purpose. The particular data collection method that you use during your market research depends very much on the particular information that you are seeking to understand.

Uses for Market Research

1. Identify opportunities to serve various groups of customers. 2. Examine the size of the market how many people have the unmet need. 3. Determine the best methods to meet the unmet needs of the target markets. 4. Investigate the competition. 5. Clarify your unique value proposition. 6. Conclude if the product is effectively meeting the needs of the customers. 7. Conclude if your advertising and promotions strategies are effective or not.

Employees- Your employees are usually the people who interact the most with your customers. Ask them about products and services that customers are asking for. Ask employees about what the customers complain about. Comment Cards- Provide brief, half-page comment cards on which they can answer basic questions such as: Were you satisfied with our services? How could we provide the perfect services?

Basic Methods to Get Information and Feedback from Customers

Competition- What is your competition selling? Ask people who shop there. Many people don't notice sales or major items in stores. Start coaching those around you to notice what's going on with your competition. Customers- One of the best ways to find out what customers want is to ask them. Talk to them when they visit your facility or you visit theirs. Documentation and Records- Notice what customers are buying and not buying from you. If you already know what customers are buying, etc., then is this written down somewhere? It should be so that you don't forget, particularly during times of stress or when trying to train personnel to help you out.

Focus Groups- Focus groups are usually 8-10 people that you gather to get their impressions of a product or service or an idea.

Surveys by Mail- You might hate answering these things, but plenty of people don't -- and will fill our surveys especially if they get something in return. Promise them a discount if they return the completed form to your facility. Telephone Surveys- Hire summer students or parttime people for a few days every six months to do telephone surveys.

Primary Research

Main sources of marketing research information

Secondary Research

Primary Research
This kind of research involves the collection of new information by conducting market surveys, telephonic interviews, questionnaires and focus group interviews. This information is gathered by directly contacting the customers. This research is customised according to the research requirements of the company. Firms can gain insights about the target markets by means of focus groups, surveys, interviews or observation. Primary research is generally based on sampling techniques and requires statistical methodologies. The sample size could be as small as 1 percent of the market and thus the information and results gathered are highly accurate.

Secondary Research
Secondary research involves processing data that has already been collected by previous researchers. It refers to consultation of previous studies and findings such as reports, press articles and previous market research projects in order to come to a conclusion. This type of research is based on information gathered from studies previously performed by government agencies, trade associations, and other organizations. This type of research is less expensive as opposed to the primary research as it does not require new research methods.

Census Bureau- There is a vast amount of information available to you, and much of this is online. Chamber of Commerce- Get to know the people in your local office. Offices usually have a wealth of information about localities, sources of networking, community resources to help your business, etc. Department of Commerce- The Department has offices in various regions across the country and publishes a wide range of information about industries, products and services.

Other Sources of Market Research Information

Ask Librarians- See the Directory of Associations, Sales and Marketing Management magazine, Statistics Index (SI), Encyclopedia Of Business Information Book, Standard & Poor's Industry Survey's and Consumer's Index. Trade and Professional OrganizationsOrganizations often produce highly useful newsletters for members, along with services for networking, answering questions, etc. Trade and Professional Publications- These have become much more useful as various trades become more specialized and their expectations are increasing for timely and useful information.

A strategy based on investing in companies and sectors which are growing faster than their peers. The benefits are usually in the form of capital gains rather than dividends.

The growth strategy sets the goals and priorities for all other initiatives in an organization's growth programme. To grow successfully, a company must first define and focus on its "profitable core."

1. Market opportunities: Market opportunities arise from three key sources: discontinuities (such as regulatory change and technological breakthroughs), major trends (including demographic shifts and changes in consumer tastes), or latent demand for products not currently offered. This latent demand could be for entirely new products or new bundles of attributes based on an existing product.

Three key sources of a great Growth Strategy

2.Organizational Capabilities :

It include the company's existing capabilities, as well as those it could reasonably build.

3. Management commitment : It is critical to the long-term success of a growth strategy. At LP, we take stakeholder management very seriously and pride ourselves on building growth strategies with management beliefs and prejudices in mind.

Marketing plan
A marketing plan may be part of an overall business plan. Solid marketing strategy is the foundation of a well-written marketing plan. While a marketing plan contains a list of actions, a marketing plan without a sound strategic foundation is of little use.

Marketing Planning Objectives

Marketing objectives will be achieved and, in the framework that we have chosen to use, are generally concerned with the 8 P's. 1. Price - The amount of money needed to buy products 2. Product - The actual product 3. Promotion (advertising)- Getting the product known 4. Placement - Where the product is located 5. People - Represent the business 6. Physical environment - The ambiance, mood, or tone of the environment 7. Process - How do people obtain your product 8. Packaging - How the product will be protected

Use of Marketing Plan

A formal, written marketing plan is essential; in that it provides an unambiguous reference point for activities throughout the planning period. Marketing plan typically offers a unique opportunity, a forum, for information-rich and productively focused discussions between the various managers involved. Marketing plans are included in business plans, offering data showing investors how the company will grow and most importantly, how they will get a return on investment.

Systematic futuristic thinking by management. Better co-ordination of a company's efforts. Development of performance standards for control. Sharpening objectives and policies Better prepare for students development.

Why is marketing planning necessary?

The Importance of Price

To the seller... Price is revenue and profit source


To the consumer... To the consumer... Price is the cost Price is the cost of something of something

Price is that which is given up in an exchange to acquire a good or service

Revenue Revenue Profit Profit

The price charged to customers multiplied by The price charged to customers multiplied by the the number of units sold. number of units sold. Revenue minus expenses Revenue minus expenses

The Importance of Price

Revenue = Unit Price Number of units sold Revenue pays for every activity Whats left over is Profit

Marketers must select a price that is not too high or not too low, a price that equals the perceived value to target consumers

Trends Influencing Price Setting

High rate of High rate of new product introduction new product introduction Increased availability of Increased availability of bargain-priced dealer and bargain-priced dealer and generic brands generic brands Price cutting as a strategy to Price cutting as a strategy to maintain or regain maintain or regain market share market share More efficient and better More efficient and better informed buyers informed buyers

Trends Trends in the in the Market Market

u tt a tS S Q s P o u n it c ia ri b O g ts c e ju s e v iQ u to a tu S Q s P o u n ir c iP ri b O g tv c e ji s e v ic n i b O g t c e j s e u t a t S Q s P o u n i c i r b O g t c e j s e v

e lS a S ri O -a s e te n e il rj P d g n ic is b O ii tr c e jO s e v e le a S ri O -n s e td n e it rj P d g n iP c ie b O ic tv c e jr s e v g n i b O i t c e s e e l a S r O s e t n e i r P d g n i c b O i t c e s e v ir fP o rd P ri O -f to e tt n e ii rj P d g n iO c ib O ie ti c e jr s e v it fn o rd P ri O -P te e tc n e ir rj P d g n in c ii b O iO tv c e jg s e v b i t c e s e i f o r P r O t e t n e i r P g n i c b O i t c e s e v

Pricing Objectives

Profit-Oriented Pricing Objectives

Profit Profit Maximizatio Maximizatio n n

Satisfactory Satisfactory Profits Profits

io fr o rP P e irt O -i tf d e tO n c ir rP P g n ii in fe o rP P e id rt O -e tt d e tr n c ii rP P g n ic g n i i f o r e i r O d e t n c i r g n i
Target Target Return on Return on Investment Investment

e jO b O e v ij tb c s e je b O e v it tc c s e v i s e j b O e v i t c s

Profit Maximization: Setting prices so that total revenue is as large as possible relative to total costs Return on Investment: Net profit after taxes divided by total assets

ROI = Net Profit after taxes Total assets

s e lS a S e il rO -a d e te n c is rP P g n iO s e lr a S e ie rO -i d e tn n c it rP P g n ie d c i r g n i s e l a S e i r O d e t n c i r g n i

e jO b O e v ij tb c s e je b O e v it tc c s e v i s e j b O e v i t c s

Sales-Oriented Pricing Objectives

Market Market Share Share

Sales Sales Maximization Maximization

Market Share: A companys product sales as a percentage of total sales for that industry Sales Maximization

Short-term objective to maximize sales Ignores profits, competition, and the marketing environment May be used to sell off excess inventory

Status Quo Pricing Objectives

Maintain Maintain existing existing prices prices

Meet Meet competitions competitions prices prices

u tt a tS S Q s P o u n it c ia ri b O g ts c e ju s e v iQ u to a tu S Q s P o u n ir c iP ri b O g tv c e ji s e v ic n i b O g t c e j s e u t a t S Q s P o u n i c i r b O g t c e j s e v

Demand and Supply

Role of demand in price determination

Demand Demand

The quantity of a product that The quantity of a product that will be sold in the market at various prices for a will be sold in the market at various prices for a specified period. specified period.

Supply Supply

The quantity of a product The quantity of a product that will be offered to the market that will be offered to the market by a supplier at various prices by a supplier at various prices for a specific period. for a specific period.

The Demand Curve & Supply Curve


D Price D

2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 .50 0 S

2.00 Price 1.50 1.00 .50

20 40 60 80 100 120 Quantity demanded



60 80 100 120

Quantity supplied

Price Equilibrium
2.50 2.00 D Surplus S


1.50 1.00 .50 0 S Shortage

Price Equilibrium







Quantity demanded

Elasticity of Demand

Consumers responsiveness or sensitivity to changes in price

Elastic Elastic Demand Demand Inelastic Inelastic Demand Demand Unitary Unitary Elasticity Elasticity
uConsumers buy more or less of a product when the price changes uAn increase or decrease in price will not significantly affect demand uAn increase in sales exactly offsets a decrease in prices, and revenue is unchanged

Elasticity of Demand
Price Goes... Price Goes... Down Down Up Up Up or Down Revenue Goes... Revenue Goes... Up Down Up Down Stays the Same Demand is... Elastic Inelastic Inelastic Elastic Unitary Elasticity

Yield Management Systems

A technique for adjusting prices that uses complex mathematical software to profitably fill unused capacity.

YMS YMS Price Price Adjustme Adjustme nts nts

Discounting Discounting early purchases early purchases Limiting early sales at Limiting early sales at discounted prices discounted prices Overbooking capacity Overbooking capacity

The Cost Determinant of Price

Types of Costs Types of Costs

Variable Variable Costs Costs

Fixed Costs Fixed Costs

Deviate with changes Deviate with changes in level of output in level of output

Do not deviate Do not deviate as level of output changes as level of output changes

Markup pricing Markup pricing

Keystoning Keystoning

Methods Methods Used to Used to Set Prices Set Prices

Profit Maximization Profit Maximization Pricing Pricing Break-Even Break-Even Pricing Pricing Target-Return Target-Return Pricing Pricing

Other Determinants of Price

Stages of the Stages of the Product Life Cycle Product Life Cycle Competition Competition Other Factors Other Factors That That Influence Influence Price Price

Distribution Strategy Distribution Strategy

Promotion Strategy Promotion Strategy

Perceived Quality Perceived Quality

Regaining Price Control

Exclusive Exclusive distribution system distribution system

Methods Methods Used to Used to Regain Regain Price Price Control Control

Franchising Franchising

Avoid business with Avoid business with price-cutting discounters price-cutting discounters Package marked with Package marked with selling price selling price DEVELOP DEVELOP BRAND LOYALTY BRAND LOYALTY

The Impact of the Internet

Allows price and product comparisons Prices are coming down Data collection allows sellers to tailor products and prices


Buying an Established Business

One of the options available when starting a business might be to purchase one which is already established. This method might well avoid many of the issues concerning building a new business from of the beginning and the potential for a large fall in income in the early periods of trading. An established business would have a customer base, access to key suppliers and thus the owner might find that they have more time initially to begin growing the organisation, rather than sourcing suppliers and formulating an extensive business start up plan.

Disadvantages of Buying an Established Business

A significant disadvantage of buying a business which is already established would of course be that the price and costs involved in acquiring it would be greater than if the operations were set-up from the beginning. As well as paying for the tangible assets, the buyer is likely to have to acquire the goodwill of the business, the value of which would be uncertain. The buyer would have to try to ascertain what exactly they are buying. It could be the technical know-how which the business has; it could be physical assets such as buildings or plant or it could be the skills that some key employees have. Wherever the value lies within the business, the purchaser should assess the risk attached to each. Key employees may leave, technical know-how might be replicated by the competition and and machinery will one day, become

Practice in Running plant Business

For someone leaving employment and starting a business, one of the significant factors which might exist when comparing buying an existing business against building one from scratch, is the expertise that person has in running an organisation. In starting an entity from the beginning, a person might be given the time and opportunity to get used to their new way of life. Making decisions for themselves, bring the various components of the business together might be good learning experiences for the person to undergo. There might be distinct advantages however, completing this training whilst transforming the business start-up idea in to an actual working operation. Mistakes which are made during the set-up stage are likely to be small and be able to be corrected before the operation go live. If the person buys an existing business however, any mistakes which are made due to the persons inexperience will be made in real-time on a live business. They stand a greater chance therefore, of affecting the customers and generally having a greater effect on the operation. The question to ask is: I am capable of running an established business right now or should I learn about it whilst I set-up my own?

Practice in Running plant a Business

For someone leaving employment and starting a business, one of the significant factors which might exist when comparing buying an existing business against building one from scratch, is the expertise that person has in running an organisation. In starting an entity from the beginning, a person might be given the time and opportunity to get used to their new way of life. Making decisions for themselves, bring the various components of the business together might be good learning experiences for the person to undergo. There might be distinct advantages however, completing this training whilst transforming the business start-up idea in to an actual working operation. Mistakes which are made during the set-up stage are likely to be small and be able to be corrected before the operation go live. If the person buys an existing business however, any mistakes which are made due to the persons inexperience will be made in real-time on a live business. They stand a greater chance therefore, of affecting the customers and generally having a greater effect on the operation.

You will also have to budget for professional fees for solicitors, surveyors, accountants etc. You will probably also need several months' worth of working capital to assist with cashflow. If the business has been neglected you may need to invest quite a bit more on top of the purchase price to give it the best chance of success. You may need to honour or renegotiate any outstanding contracts the previous owner leaves in place. You also need to consider why the current owner is selling up and how this might impact the business and your taking it over. It's possible current staff may not be happy with a new boss, or the business might have been run badly and staff morale may be low.

Disadvantages Of Acquiring an Established Business often need to invest a large amount up front, and

Methods of Valuing a Business

Business valuation is a mixture of art and science wrapped up in a professionals opinion. But in the real world, the value of a business is what a buyer will pay for the enterprise. How a buyer can determine a fair value can be based on methods described below. Each of these methods may have variations depending on application and specific situations. Its common to value a business by a number of different methods and use a weighted average for the final valuation. There are a number of reasons to value a business but for purposes of this article we will limit our scope to valuing businesses for the purpose of buying and selling. Below are the approaches with specific methods used within each

1. The Income Approach

This is the most widely recognized approach to estimating economic value. The income approach is an income-oriented method of estimating economic value. It involves estimating the amount of future income/earnings that will be produced by a business along with and the expected rate of return required by the investor to determine an estimated value. There are two different methods within the Income Approach. The first method is the Capitalization of Earnings Method. The term capitalization refers to the process of dividing a known or assumed amount of return on an investment by a known or assumed rate of return to determine the principle to invest. You take the estimated net income (adjusted earnings) by an estimated rate of return resulting in an investment value.


Investment Value = Adjusted Earnings divided by Capitalization Rate

While the mathematics of the capitalization is quite simple, the process of estimating net earnings and selecting the appropriate capitalization is complex. The following outline is simplified and shows the basic steps of the capitalization of earning method

1 . Determine the type of earnings to be capitalized . Owners discretionary income (includes owner salary) Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization Earnings before interest and taxes Net Profit After Tax Free Cash Flo

2 . Prepare a recast statement of earnings based on historical earnings .

3 . Choose a capitalization rate . 4 . Calculate the investment valu

The capitalization method is used when growth of the company is forecasted to be flat or less than 5% annually. When growth is expected to be greater than 5% it would be appropriate to use the Discounted Future Earnings Method. In applying the discounted future earnings method to estimating economic value, the amount of future earnings from the business is estimated for each forecasted period. The estimated earnings for each year are then discounted at the appropriate discount rate to determine their present value. The present value of each period of estimated earnings for all future years are then added to determine the total present value. The last step determines what we call the terminal value. Its the residual value of the property at the end of the period of years being estimated. This value is discounted to its equivalent present value and added to the present value of the future earnings to determine total economic value. This method is most often used in merger and acquisition

2. Market Data Approach

In estimating the value of businesses using the market data approach the valuator attempts to identify publicly and privately held businesses that have been sold, which are similar to the one being appraised. The appraiser then uses information about the selling prices of these businesses as a basis for estimating the value of the business being appraised. As one uses this type of approach it is important to appropriately compare the size of the business being valued. Over recent years more and more information on privately-held business sales are being documented among business brokers and intermediaries, it is still sometimes difficult to obtain information on past business transactions due to the uniqueness

3 . Tangible Assets ( Replacement Cost Approach )

In some instances, a business is worth no more than the value of its tangible assets. This would be the case for some (not all) businesses that are losing money or paying the owner(s) less in total than fair market compensation. You would adjust the assets values up or down on the balance sheet to their present fair market value less the companys liabilities

4 . Cost to Create Approach

Sometimes companies or individuals will purchase a company just to avoid the difficulties of starting from scratch. The buyer will calculate the companys his or her start up costs using costs incurred and time expended This method can be used for the business as whole or certain assets such as copyrights and patents. Various proprietary items such as trade formulas or processes, customer lists, are other examples of assets that can also be valued by means of the cost to create approach

5 . Rules of Thump
What are rules of thumb? Rules of thumb or industry formulas are supposedly market derived units of comparison (from Market Data Approach). The multiple or percentage contained in the formula is an expression of the relationship between gross purchase price and/or some indicator of the operating results of the business (Sales, Net Profit, Gross Profitetc.) Since these formulas are statistically derived from the sale of many businesses of each type. You have to be very careful because the formulas are based on averages. Not all businesses operate at the industry average, which would overvalue or undervalue a business if the rule of thumb was applied. They do serve their purpose if the appraiser can determine the business operates in



Venture capital financing is a type of financing by venture capital the type of private equity capital is provided as seed funding to early-stage, high-potential, growth companies and more often after the seed funding round as growth funding round (also referred as series A round) in the interest of generating a return through an eventual realization event such as an IPO or trade sale of the company


STAGES The Seed stage The Start-up stage The Second stage The Third stage The Bridge/Pre-public stage



This is where the seed funding takes place. It is considered as the setup stage where a person or a venture approaches an angel investor or an investor in a VC-firm for funding for their idea/product. During this stage, the person or venture has to convince the investor why the idea/product is worthwhile. The investor will investigate into the technical and the economical feasibility (Feasibility Study) of the idea. In some cases, there is some sort of prototype of the idea/product that is not fully developed or tested.

The Start-up Stage

If the idea/product/process is qualified for further investigation and/or investment, the process will go to the second stage; this is also called the start-up stage. At this point many exciting things happen. A business plan is presented by the attendant of the venture to the VC-firm. A management team is being formed to run the venture. If the company has a board of directors, a person from the VC-firms will take seats at the board of directors.

The Second Stage

At this stage, we presume that the idea has been transformed into a product and is being produced and sold. This is the first encounter with the rest of the market, the competitors. The venture is trying to squeeze between the rest and it tries to get some market share from the competitors. This is one of the main goals at this stage

The Third Stage

This stage is seen as the expansion/maturity phase of the previous stage. The venture tries to expand the market share they gained in the previous stage. This can be done by selling more amount of the product and having a good marketing campaign. Also, the venture will have to see whether it is possible to cut down their production cost or restructure the internal process.

The Bridge/Pre-public Stage

In general this stage is the last stage of the venture capital financing process. The main goal of this stage is to achieve an exit vehicle for the investors and for the venture to go public. At this stage the venture achieves a certain amount of the market share. This gives the venture some opportunities like for example: Hostile take over Merger with other companies; Keeping away new competitors from approaching the market; Eliminate competitors.

Effective asset management

Asset management- refers to any system whereby things that are of value to an entity or group are monitored and maintained. It may apply to both tangible assets and to intangible concepts such as intellectual property and goodwill.

Asset Management approach incorporates the economic assessment of trade-offs among alternative investment options and uses this information to help make cost-effective investment decisions.

The practice of managing the whole life cycle (design, construction, commissioning, operating, maintaining, repairing, modifying, replacing and decommissioning/disposal) of physical and infrastructure assets such as structures, production and service plant, power, water and waste treatment facilities, distribution networks, transport systems, buildings and other physical assets.

Alternative methods of financing

Alternative methods of financing are the following. Equity financing: Here the venture capital funds actually participate in the equity through direct purchase of shares but their stake does not exceed 49 percent. Conventional loan: Under this scheme of finance like other traditional loans a lower fixed rate of interest is charged till the assisted units become commercially operational; after which the loan carries normal or higher rate of interest.


Conditional loan: In this type of financing ,an interest free loan is provided during the implementation period but it has to pay royalty on sales and has to repay the loan according to a pre-determined schedule as soon as the company is able to generate sales and yield income.

Income notes: This type of financing is nothing but an admixture of blending of conventional and conditional loans. Hence both interest and royalty are payable but at much lower rate than in the case of conditional loans.


Venture capital is a post-war phenomenon in the business world, mainly developed as a sideline activity of the rich in the USA. The term venture capital comprises two words, via, venture and capital. Venture means chance chance or trial hinting at speculation, to try ones luck, i.e. good or bad involving risk or hazard or exposure to insecurity or danger. The term capital denotes the resources needed to start the enterprise. Therefore venture capital is understood as capital that is available for financing a new business venture.

Venture economics has defined Venture capital as providing seed, start-up and first stage financing and also funding the expansion of companies that have already demonstrated their business potential but do not yet have access to the public securities market or to credit oriented institutional funding services, venture capital also provides management in leveraged buy out financing.


An entrepreneur needs venture capital fund at different stages of his companys growth, which are as follows. 1. Early Stage Financing:- It is also called seed financing. Financing is done for either a new firm or a new product development by an already existing firm. 2. Development Financing:-Also known as expansion financing and financing can be for working capital or for expansion. 3. Buyout Financing:-It is also known as acquisition financing as financing enables the present group to acquire another business house as a whole or a part. 4.


The venture capital firms in India can be categorized into the following groups. 1. All India Developmental Financial Institutions sponsored venture capital funds promoted by the all-India development financial institutions such as Technology Development and Information Company of India Limited (TDICI) by ICICI, Risk Capital technology Finance Corporation Limited (RCTCF) by IFCI and Risk Capital fund (RCF) by IDBI. 2. State Finance Corporations Sponsored Venture capital funds promoted by the state-level developmental financial institutions such as Gujarat Venture Capital Limited (GVCL) and Andhra Pradesh Industrial Development Corporations Venture Capital Limited (APIDC-VCL).

Contd .
3. Bank- sponsored venture capital funds promoted by public sector banks such as Canfinance and SBI Caps. 4. Private venture capital funds promoted by the foreign banks/private sector companies and financial institutions such as Indus Venture Capital Funds, Credit Capital Venture Fund and Grindlays India Development Fund.




1. 2. 3. 4.

Hindus Venture Capital Fund. Twentieth Century Venture Capital Fund. Credit Capital Venture Fund (CCVF). IL & FS Venture Corporation.


Venture Capital or risk finance should generally be in equity or quasi-equity form like convertible loan instruments. The following firms are used by VCCs/VCFs in India. Equity: The venture capitalist provides venture capital in the form of equity for the project and acts as co-owner with the entrepreneur, sharing profits and loss in the venture. The equity is generally less than the promoters contribution so that the promoter can retain effective control and majority ownership of the enterprise. Conditional Loans: A conditional loan is not repayable like a conventional loan and does not carry interest. The repayment of conditional loan is linked to the sales or turnover of the company in the form of royalty.

Conventional Loans: Some VCCs/VCFs like RCTC also provide conventional loans to entrepreneurs for a long period of 10-12 years. Income Notes: Income note is a hybrid security combining the features of both conventional loan and conditional loan. On this security, a floor rate of interest (say 8 percent) and a royalty on sales of company are charged. Other Financial Instruments: There are some other innovative financial instruments being used by some VCFs in India. They are 1. Partially convertible debentures 2. Fully convertible debentures 3. Cumulative convertible preference shares

Working Capital
Definition The amount of capital perpetually locked up in the form of current assets (i.e, raw materials, work in process, finished goods, sundry debtors, and cash in hand required to sustain a specified level of activity (in terms of production and sales) under specific conditions. The level of investment changes continuously as a result of : Change in operating levels Change in specific conditions like raw material prices, process time, credit extended to consumers etc.


Cash Sundry debtors materials Raw

Work-in-Process Finished Goods Flow of Working Capital

Assessment of Working Capital Requirements

Assess the quantum of funds required to hold current assets. Total working capital granted to a unit consist of two components Finance granted by institution Margin bought in by entrepreneur.

Recent development Assessment based on Nayak committee. Recommendations of Nayak Committee: All units with a fund based limit of up to Rs.50 lakhs, the minimum working capital will be 25% of the annual turnover, where 20 % will be financed by the institutions and 5 % will be the contribution of the entrepreneur.

Why projects needed to be developed in Indian Economy

Employment generation (30.9 Million) Creation of wealth/income Overall-growth & development Gross National Production (39%) Growth of exports & import substitute (33% in total export)

Establishment of promotional agencies

SIDO = 1954 NSIC = 1955 KVIC = 1956 CIETI = 1960

Need for Govts intervention: Liberalization & globalization of Economy Opportunities in increased access to a much larger market for their products & services But facing challenges in their scale of operation, technological obsolescence, inability to access institutional credit and intense competition in marketing

Primary responsibilities of Govt. Agencies

Central Government

State Governments

formulation of policies & schemes programmes to provide direct and indirect assistance schemes for cluster development schemes for income & employment generation overall supports in credit, fiscal, marketing, technology & quality upgradation, establishing technology resource centre, sick unit rehabilitation, entrepreneurial & managerial development, empowerment of women-owned enterprises etc

implementation of policies & schemes registration/de-registration of MSMEs regulating schemes of subsidy & concessions providing scarce raw materials, marketing assistance, long term loan assistance, industrial sheds, statutory regulatory assistance etc

Schemes & Govt. agencies

Cluster Development Programme Credit Guarantee Fund Trust Credit Linked Capital Subsidy (for technology upgradation) Purchase & Price preference MSME

SIDBI & Nationalised Banks



Schemes & Govt. agencies.

Micro Finance Programme Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD) Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries Financial assistance to SC/ST



KVIC & Coir Board


Schemes & Govt. agencies

Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) Performance & Credit Rating External Market Development assistance for Coir Industries



Coir Board

Schemes & Govt. agencies

Mahila Udyam Nidhi (MUN) National Equity Fund (NEF) Integrated Development of Leather Sector Assistance to States for developing export infrastructure & other activities (ASIDE)

SFCs & Banks SFCs & Banks CLRI State Level Export Promotion Committee

Starting a MSME A quick review

Creating a project/business plan Making a product choice Setting up Infrastructure Naming & registering a business Choosing a form of business organisation Choosing the location Pricing the product Compliance with regulatory requirements Financing a start up business Sourcing process/raw materials/machineries & equipments Hiring human resource Workout a marketing strategy etc.

Government formalities, Rules & regulations

Regulatory requirements: EM registration Local licences Companies Act registration Inspector of Factories registration Corporate Affairs registration

Govt. Agencies: DICs/MSMEs/Industrial Associations Municipality/Corporation Company Affairs Inspector of Factories Corporate Affairs

Govt. formalities

Cooperative societies

Partnership Deed

Central Excise Sales Tax Pollution

Registrar of Cooperative Societies Inspector-General of Factories Superintendent/Collector of Central Excise Local Sales Tax Dept. State Pollution Control Board

Govt. formalities

Power connection Employing more then 10 workers with power connection Effluent disposal, gaseous waste, etc F.P.O.- license for fruit & vegetable based products/ Food products

Electricity Board Chief Inspector of Factories District Health Office/Public Health Dept. Fruit & Vegetable Preservation Office

Govt. formalities

Drug License for Drugs & Cosmetic Products Patents & Designs Registration Trade Mark Registration ISI/BIS Mark

Director of Drugs Control

Controller of Patents & Designs Registrar of Assistant Trade Marks Bureau of Indian Standards

Govt. formalities

Import Export Code Number Registration under VAT Service Tax Registration Income Tax Factory Accommodation Industrial plots/sheds

Joint Director General of Foreign Trade Asst. Commissioner Commercial Taxes Superintendent of Central Excise Income Tax Dept. SIDCO Limited

Life Cycle of MODULE 5 Entrepreneur Venture

Entrepreneurial LifeCycle

Entrepreneurial managementis defined as the practice of taking entrepreneurial knowledge and utilizing it for increasing the effectiveness of new business venturing as well as small- and medium-sized businesses.

The heart of entrepreneurial management is continually juggling these vital management issues :

1. 2. What is this venture about? 3. Where should it go? 4. How will it get there? 5. What does it need to get there? 6. What structure is best?

The Seven Stages in the Entrepreneurial Life Cycle

1 . Opportunity Recognition
This gestation period is quite literally the pre-start analysis. It often occurs over a considerable period of time ranging from one month to ten years.

2 . Opportunity Focusing
This is a sanity check, a go/no-go stage gate for part-time entrepreneurs because it fleshes out shaky ideas and exposes gaping holes. It is important to include objective, outside viewpoints because different people can investigate the same opportunity and come to opposite conclusions.

3 . Commitment of Resources
This stage starts with developing the business plan. A common mistake entrepreneurs make is skipping the business plan.

4 . Market Entry

Profitability and success define the market entrystage. If the business modelwas profitable, reasonable objectives were met

5 . Full Launch and Growth

The entrepreneur needs to choose a particular high-growth strategy. The entrepreneur chooses to remain a small business and never passes this stage or perhaps opts to remain operating as a sole proprietor.

6 . Maturity and Expansion

The growth becomes a natural extension of the venture through professional management practices. This professional management team is implementing the ventures growth strategy through global expansion, acquisitions, and mergers as cash is plentiful and inefficiencies are completely flushed out.

7 . Liquidity Event
This stage is focused on capturing the value created in the previous stages through a business exit. The opportunity to exit successfully from a venture is a significant factor in the entrepreneurial life cycle, both for the entrepreneur and for any investors providing investment capital along the way.

Copy right & Concept of Fair use

Copy right
A set ofexclusive rightsgranted to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. Copyright allows authors, musicians, artists, etc. to make money off of their labor. It prevents others from taking there work for free. It also prevents people from altering the work without permission.

What can be protected??

Literary Works Musical Works Dramatic Works Choreographic Work Pictorial, Graphic, and Sculptural Works Motion Pictures and Audio-Visual Sound Recordings Architectural Works Computer Programs

For works created after January 1,1978,copyright lasts for the life of author plus 70 years. In the case of a joint work, copyright lasts for 70 years after the last surviving author's death. For anonymous and pseudonymous works and works made for hire, copyright lasts 95 years from the year of first publication or 120 years from the year of creation, whichever ends first.

How long does copyright last?

For works created but not published or registered before January 1, 1978, copyright lasts for the life of the author plus 70 years, but it will not expire earlier than December 31, 2002. If the work is published before December 31, 2002, copyright will not expire before December 31, 2047. For pre-1978 works still in their original or renewal term of copyright, copyright is extended

Fair Use
Alimitation and exceptionto theexclusive rightgranted bycopyrightlaw to the author of a creative work, that allows limited use of copyrighted material without acquiring permission from the rights holders. Examples include commentary, criticism, news reporting, research, teaching, library

Guidelines for fair use

Each case of copying must be evaluated according to four factors: 1. The purpose and nature of the use. 2. The nature of the copyrighted work. 3. The nature and substantiality of the material used. 4. The effect of use on the potential market for or value of the work.

Requirements for patent grants

Regulations affecting the business

Each category of business/service will have differing regulations

Some of them are :

Business registration Licensing requirements

Sales tax

Income tax

Labour legislations

Environment laws

IPR is Intellectual Property Right IPR is defined as information with commercial value or simply Product of Mind It is a composite of ideas , inventions and creative expression plus the public willingness to bestow the status of property on them IPR give its owners the right to exclude others from access to their property and not lawfully by others without owners permission WIPO provided that Intellectual Property includes rights related to
vScientific , literary or artistic field vPerformance of performing artists , broadcasts vScientific inventions vIndustrial designs vTrade marks , commercial names vProtection against unfair competition

Forms of protection of IPR

Patents Copyrights Trademarks Industrial Designs Geographical Indications Layout Designs of ICs Protection of new plant varieties Protection of trade secrets

Patents ????
Grant of exclusive rights to an inventor over his invention for a limited period of time

The exclusive rights conferred include the right to make, use, exercise, sell or distribute the invention in India

Grants the patent holder right to make use or sell the patented products or process

Purpose : to benefit the society

Patents , by providing an opportunity to recoup the cost of invention & to make profit out of the invention , encourage R&D & thereby contribute to the well being of the society

What rights does a patent owner have???

Right to decide who may or may not use the patented invention for the period in which the invention is protected

Patent owner may give permission to , or license , other parties to use the invention on mutually agreed terms

Owner may also sell the right to the invention to someone else , who will then become the new owner of the patent Once the patent expires , the protection ends & an invention enters the public domain

Why are patents necessary???

Provide incentives Recognition

Material reward

Patent protection in India

Introduced in India in the 18th century

The Indian Patents Act was amended in 1970 : law related to patents

The Indian Patents Act , 1970 became effective from January 1 ,2005, lays down :

Eligibility , procedures & conditions for grant of patents Inventions & other subjects not patentable Rights & obligations of patentee Grounds for revocation of patents Matters related to working of the patent & compulsory licensing Rights of government regarding patented products

How is a patent granted???

The first step in securing a Patent is the filing of Patent Application Patent Application contains : vTitle of invention vIndication of the technical field vBackground vAbstract / Description of the invention
v Visual materia ls drawin gs , plans ,

Term of a patent in Indian System

In India , the term of a patent is 20 years from the date of filing the Patent Application

If there is any delay in filing the application , the invention would fall into the public domain

What kinds of inventions can be protected by a patent????

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Invention must be new & novel Invention must show an inventive step Invention must be capable of industrial application Invention must be useful to the society Subject matter of the invention must be accepted as patentable under law

What may not be patented???

The following subjects are not entitled to patent protection:

Abstract ideas

Laws of nature and physical phenomena

Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work (may be subject to copyright protection)

Inventions that are not useful (such as perpetual motion machines) or that

Forms of IPR Patent What it protects Inventions Criteria , inventiveness , Duration Novelty 20 years industrial applicability Copyright Design Expression of ideas Originality Literary works:lifetime of the author+60yrs 10+5yrs External appearance of the Original/new , product significantly distinguishable Identification symbols , words or letters Design of ICs Distinctive , visually perceptible Original , distinctive , distinguishable

Trademark Layout design

Unlimited 10yrs

Protection of plant New varieties , farmers variety varieties GI Goods of specific geographical origin

Distinctiveness , uniformity , stability, novelty

Trees & vines: 18yrs Other: 15yrs

Possess a given quality , Unlimited reputation

Role of entrepreneur during various transition stages

* Introduction stage

Entrepreneur can take many forms and can be defined in m any ways * conceptual background this analyses and describes about the main concepts used in the study based on a review of existing theoritical and emperical studies * Developing a conceptual framework mainly focus

* data and methodology not only a complicated phenomenon but is also a non linear process * results after classifyng all the studies in the transition stages and identifying the main barriers at each stage the final step is to conclude thus by obtaining good results * Limitations clasification of different types of barriers into formal , informal ,and other categories is much difficult

* Concluding remarks the final stage is to conclude thus by getting sufficinent answers

Registration of Trade Marks

Procedure for Trade mark registration:

Identify the mark/logo to be registered as Trade mark Search with trade mark registry for the availability of Trade mark/name for registration Identify the class under which the Trade mark to be registered Filing the application with trade marks registry Obtaining the acknowledgement form Trade marks registry

After issuing the acknowledgement, trade marks registry will issue the first examination reports(minimum 8-12 months required)and there is no objection in that they publish the marks in the trade mark journal for public information (minimum 3-5 months required) and will call for objections if any up to 3 months. If there is no objection from anyone, the trademark registry will issue the certificate of trade mark registration


1ST STEP:Trademarksearch inthetrademarkregistryistocheck whetherthereisasimilaror phoneticallysimilartrademark alreadyregisteredorapplied.Ifso changethemarkandbythiswecan avoidthefuturecomplicationsinour businessandavoidtheunnecessary expenses

2ND STEP:Trademarkapplicationinthe relevantinternationalclass baseduponthegoodsandservicesto makethetrademarkapplicationinthe relevantclassitwillhelpustoprotect ourproductorservicefromothers.

3RD STEP:Examinationofapplication: Applicationwillbeexaminedbythe registrartocheckwhethertheapplication isgenuineandwhethertheclassification iscorrect.Theywillalsocomparethe applicationwiththeotherapplications whicharealreadyregisteredorinthe


Iftheyfindanysimilaritywiththeother applicationoranyclarificationrelatingtothe usageofthetrademarktheregistraroffice willobjecttheapplicationforseekingthe clarificationfromtheapplicant.Theapplicant cangivetheexplanationtotheregisterby givingawrittenstatementsupportingwith anaffidavitfurthertothatregistrarwillcall theapplicantorhisAttorneyforabetter clarificationorallybyaskingfewquestion fromtheregistrarandifheissatisfiedwith theapplicantsclarificationtheapplication willbeacceptedforadvertisementinthe TrademarkJournal.

4TH STEP:Advertisementperiodand Opposition: Fromthedateofadvertisementwithin4 monthsanyaggrievedpartycanopposethe trademarkregistrationandthisiscalledas opposition.Ifoppositionisfiledthenwehave tofilethecountertotheoppositionwith evidenceandtheregistrarwilltakethe decisionbasedontheevidenceandpurityof thetrademark

5THSTEP: Registration: Oncetheadvertisementperiodisover theTrademarkwillgetregisteredand wewillreceiveourregistered Certificate.

ALL THE BEST .. @nnu