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BY D.V.S.K.

HAREESH SACHIN AGRAWAL

2008B3A1418G 2008A4PS354G

BITS,PILANI - GOA CAMPUS

A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid or air flow. Benoit Fourneyron (1802-1867) built the first practical water turbine. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotating shaft with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they rotate and impart energy to the rotor.

Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels. Gas, steam and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the modern steam turbine is given to British Engineer Sir Charles Parsons (1854 1931)

A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head) which is converted to mechanical energy. Fluid may be compressible/incompressible. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy.

Steam turbines Gas turbines Transonic turbine Contra-rotating turbines Stator less turbine Ceramic turbine Shrouded turbine Shroud less turbine Bladeless turbine Water turbines

Almost all electrical power on Earth is produced with a turbine of some type. Very high efficiency turbines harness about 40% of the thermal energy, with the rest exhausted as waste heat. Most jet engines rely on turbines to supply mechanical work from their working fluid and fuel as do all nuclear ships and power plants.

Steam turbines are one of the most versatile and oldest prime mover technologies still in production. Power generation using steam turbines has been in use for about 100 years, when they replaced reciprocating steam engines due to their higher efficiencies and lower costs. A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. About 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines.

Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) to 2,000,000 hp (1,500,000 kW). Types include condensing, non-condensing, reheat, extraction and induction. Non condensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure.

These are commonly found at refineries, district heating units, pulp and paper plants. Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. These turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state, typically of a quality near 90%, at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser.

An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process or constant entropy process. No steam turbine truly follows isentropic process. Typical isentropic efficiencies range from 20%90% based on the application of the turbine.

The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades or commonly referred to as buckets. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances, with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage.

To maximize turbine efficiency, the steam is expanded generating work in a number of stages. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Most modern steam turbines are a combination of the reaction and impulse design. Typically, higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type.

Steam turbines are rugged units, with operational life often exceeding 50 years. Maintenance is simple, comprised mainly of making sure that all fluids are clean and at the proper temperature. Other items include inspecting auxiliaries such as lubricating oil pumps, coolers and oil strainers and checking safety devices such as the operation of over -speed trips.

To obtain reliable service, steam turbines require long warm-up periods for minimal thermal expansion stresses and wear concerns. Steam turbine maintenance costs are quite low. Typically less than $0.004 per kWh. Boilers and any associated solid fuel processing and handling equipment that is part of the boiler or steam turbine plant require their own types of maintenance.

Total of 5 turbines present in SPM out of which 3 of are working. TA-2 & TA-3 are manufactured by METROPOLITON VICKERS each of capacity 7.5 MW. TA-1 manufactured by BHEL with a capacity of 9.5 MW. TA-2 and TA-3 are old and due to safety reasons, they are not utilised to the fullest. Two turbines manufactured by TRIVENI of capacity 2.5 MW and 4.9 MW are shut down

17 MW of power is produced at the power house in the recent times. The TA-1 produces a maximum of 9 MW power. The total power consumption of SPM is 25 MW on an average. Peak hours of power consumption in the plant is between 6 A.M- 10 A.M and 5 P.M- 10 A.M.

Paper Machine 1 - 0.7 MW, Paper Machine 2 - 0.8 MW, Paper Machine 3 - 1.5 MW, Paper Machine 4 - 0.7 MW, Paper Machine 5 - 0.5 MW, Paper Machine 6 - 1.5 MW, Paper Machine 7 - 2.5 MW, Paper Machine 8 - 3.5 MW,

Fibre line - 3.5 MW, ClO2 plant - 2 MW, Effluent Treatment plant - 0.7 MW, D. M. Plant, Boilers & others - 2.5 MW, Soda Recovery plant - 0.2 MW, Recovery Boiler - 2.2 MW, Workshop & Remaining 1 MW, Colony 1.2 - 2 MW ( Depending on the usage ).

The two turbines TA-2 & TA-3 are both condenser type turbines. The TA-1 turbine is back pressure turbine. M.P steam is send to pulp mill. L.P steam is sent to paper machines. All the power outputs are synchronized before they get connected to a 6.6 kV bus.

Main purpose of control room at power house is the power generation, distribution and energy conservation. The condenser turbines uses high pressure steam, produces power and releases steam which is of low pressure. This low pressure steam is used in various plants. The back pressure turbine uses high pressure steam and releases low pressure and medium pressure steam which is used at various plants in the mills.

Make - Metropolitan Vickers electrical export co. Limited Type - impulse reaction pass out condensing turbine Machine nos - 4763 and 4764 Year of manufacture - 1949 Commissioning year - 1953-54 Max.rating - 7.5 MW Normal rating - 6 MW Steam pressure 400 psi

Steam temperature- 750 F Speed of the turbine 3000 rpm Speed of the alternator 3000 rpm Electrical circuit 3 phase, 50 cycles, 6600 Volts, power factor = 0.8 Max. Pass out steam 65000 lbs. per hour @ 25 psig Economical rating 6000 kW

The modern 9.5MW turbine is BHEL made It is Extraction or Back Pressure Turbine. Consumes about 10 tons of steam for the production of 1MW of electricity where as the Metropoliton Vicker made condenser turbine consumes about 4-5 ton. Difference is due to type of turbine. It is completely automated.

The input for this turbine is 50 tons / hour of steam with a temperature of 400o C and a pressure of about 31.5 kg/ cm2. The steam causes the turbine to rotate with a speed of 8000 rpm. This speed is reduced to 1500 rpm at the generator with the gearbox. The outlet steam is separated as low pressure and medium pressure steam. The low pressure steam is of temperature 2000 C and pressure of 1.9 kg/ cm2. The medium pressure steam is of temperature 2800C and pressure of 5.0 kg/cm2

High Pressure End 32kg/cm2 at 4000C

Low Pressure End 4kg/cm2 at 1800C Low Pressure End 4kg/cm2 at 1800C

Mid Pressure End 8kg/cm2 at 2800C Mid Pressure End 8kg/cm2 at 2800C

The turbine temperature is generally of the order of 800C. An alarm is used for the indication of the temperature of the turbine. A censor is placed on the journal bearings of the turbine for the detection of temperature. 800 C to 850C No Alarm 950C to 1150C Alarm 1150C above Turbine trips

Trip Mechanism: It consists of a 0.3-0.5mm spring placed over the rotor which is attached to a lever placed such that the displacement in the lever causes an obstruction to the rotation of the turbine such that the turbine stops, protecting the turbine. Governor: The governor is generally placed across the steam inlet of the turbine which regulates the steam inflow of the turbine maintaining the rpm of the turbine constant so that the power generation of the turbine is constant. Generally, a Wood ward governor is used.

  

Oil Flow Mechanism : Oil flow is necessary for lubrication of turbine . Oil passes through the minor gap between the rotor blade and the bearings. Journal bearings are used in turbines. They melt upon the increase of temperature. Oil flow is such that a contact is maintained between the rotor (shaft) and the journal bearings. Change in flow creates disorder in functioning of turbine and affects the smooth rotation of the turbine.

Long term problems such as rusting can occur if oil flow is not maintained in an order. The oil flow mechanism in the SPM is as follows:
Oil tank

turbines

condenser

Oil Filter

An oil tank is used for storing oil in reserve. Three pumps are connected. 1) M.O.P. (Main Oil Pump) 2) A.O.P. (Auxiliary Oil Pump) 3) E.O.P. (Emergency Oil Pump) The M.O.P is used generally for lubricating. In case of a breakdown or problem the A.O.P is used. The E.O.P is used as an alternate for the A.O.P.

In case three oil pumps fail an overhead tank placed above the plant is used for pumping using the gravitational force. Oil is pumped through the pumps at a pressure of 11kg/cm2. Pumped oil is sent to an oil cooler for decreasing the temperature and later to an oil filter for purification as it may contain impurities that were settled in the oil tank or in the pumps. Oil is cooled by passing cold water in the oil cooler through separate tubes.

Condenser: It utilizes water for cooling down. SPM uses about 30% of DM (De-mineralized) water and the rest is water in condensate form obtained from the remains of various plants which is directed to the condenser.

Proper maintenance of oil Temperature Pressure drops Vibrations Water forming Mixing of inlets Vacuum maintenance Pure steam