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Introduction to Business Communication

Prof (Dr) Uma Bhushan

A 20-year study of MBA graduates from Stanford University concluded that no skill is more important to business success than good communication especially the desire and ability to persuade (Harrel & Harrel, 1984)
The Business Presentation/UB/SIMSR 2

Drucker on Communication
And the further away your job is from manual work, the larger the organization of which you are an employee, the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. In the very large organisation . This ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a person can possess.

Writing for your present and future


Jonathan Swift defined good writing as proper words in proper places. Tone neither overly formal or inappropriately casual Word choice Mark Twain said I never write `metropolis; when I get paid the same for writing `city Length length means more work

Speaking for your present and future


Pronunciation, enunciation, vocal variety, gestures, eye contact speaking manner skills continue to be important Mastery of the medium of oral and visual communication is very important video conferences, videotape roles, streaming Internet contacts,

Listening for your present and future


Sheer volume of listening in management careers is huge Listening intelligently learn and practice new types of listening skills to listen to what is not said what is overstated Listening through slickness Keeping up with voice messages

Challenges of the communication age


More words More information More ready-made messages and documents Handle more business messages and docs Understand more information Sift through to reach the right information

Types of Communication Skills


Visual Skills Spoken Skills Reading Skills Technological Skills Written Skills

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Usage of Business Communication Channels


Writing 9%

Receiving

Sending

Speaking 30 %

Listening 45 %

Reading 16 %

But not taught enough


50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Writing Reading Speaking Listening 9% 16% 45%

Amo u

nt

tau

ght

30%

you need to be a highly skilled communicator

What is communication?
Latin verb Communicare -to make common Sanskrit - `sadharinikaran It is NOT to recite, deliver, speak, write or sermonize All these fall short of `making common the flow of ideas and feeling Mere speaking/writing is a one-way activity communication involves common(communal) interests shared by all parties involved in the communication

Basic Communication Model

The sender encodes the message and selects a channel. The receiver decodes the message and uses feedback to respond.
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Communication Process

Comm in Organisations

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Communication in Organizations

Organisational Communication Goals

Who matters most ?


Audience/Receiver/recipient Making FEEDBACK extremely important

Flow of communication
Downward Upward Lateral or horizontal Diagonal or cross-wise

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Communication Networks
1.Chain network 2.Y-network 3.Wheel network 4.Circle network 5.All-channel network

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Chain network
Only vertical upward or downward

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Y-network
Multi-level hierarchy combination of horizontal and vertical flow

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Wheel network
Several subordinates reporting to a superior combination of horizontal and diagonal flow

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Circle Network
Allows employees to interact with adjacent members but no further vertical communication between superiors and subordinates and horizontal communication at the lowest level

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All-channel network
Least structures enables each employee to communicate freely with others

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Informal Network Models

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Grapevine
Informal network models
Single strand Gossip Probability cluster

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Single Strand
Y

Most people view grapevine as single strand Message is passed from one person to another along a single strand

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Gossip
One person passes information to all the others
F E D C B A I J G H

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Probability
K G E C

J H

B A
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D I

Each person tells others at random


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Cluster
E C

B F H

Most popular pattern of grapevine communication Some people tell a selected few of the others

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Grapevine +ves and -ves


Positives
Not expensive Rapid Multidirectional If carefully cultivated, is capable fo resolving conflicts A measure of public opinion Serves as an outlet for anxieties, worries, frustration Promotes unity, solidarity
2004 Communication Basics/UB/KJSIMSR Voluntary and unforced 32

Negatives
Reveal some degree of error Harmful in case it is baseless or imaginary Lead to misunderstanding because fo incomplete information as no one takes Not reliable, responsibility for it Cause damage to organisation due to excessive speed of flow

G ra p e vi e + ve s a n d -ve s n
1.Completeness 2.Conciseness 3.Consideration 4.Concreteness 5.Clarity 6.Courtesy 7.Correctness
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Communication
Communication is the process of sending and receiving information among people
Feedback

receiver

sender

SENDER

RECEIVER

Messages not delivered due to distortion


Feedback

Sender

Receiver

Distor tion

What causes distortion?


Speaker
Language Wordiness Emotions

Listener
Perceptions Preconceived notions/expectations Physical hearing problem Speed of thought Personal interests Emotions Attention span No active listening!

Barriers to Communication
1.Physical/Mechanical 2.Cultural 3.Experiential 4.Perceptual 5.Motivational 6.Emotional 7.Organisational 8.Nonverbal 9.Linguistic 10.Competition from other stimuli

Communication Architecture for Modern Businesses


Need-based communication planning
Who needs to talk to whom ? Why? What barriers come in the way?

Sufficient Bandwidth
What quantity and quality of comm can various channels carry within the organisation?

Scalability and Convertibility of Communication media


In times of crisis or opportunity, can various types and channels of communication expand to reach all stakeholders

Sensing Systems
Formal employee surveys or supervisors keeping open lines of communication

Monitoring and Maintenance of Communication Channels


Handled by skilled communicators, installation of suggestion boxes, etc

Media Richness
Including notes, memos and letters Including conversations, meetings, presentations, videoconferences

LEANER LEANER

Unaddressed Unaddressed documents documents

Addressed Addressed documents documents

Telephone Telephone and email and email

Face-toFace-toface face

RICHER RICHER

Including fliers, bulletins, and standard reports

Including Voice mail and teleconferencing

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