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Political Science

It is the systematic study of the state & government The word political came from the Greek word polis meaning city equivalent to a sovereign state It is the basic knowledge & understanding of the state & the principles & ideas which underlie its organization & activities It is primarily concerned with the association of human beings in a body politic or a political community

Political Science
History ascribes to Aristotle the beginnings of

the formal study of state & government Political science is a social science considering that it focuses on men as they interact with the government and its various institutions It deals with the basic knowledge & understanding of the state as well as the principles & ideologies underlying its organization & activities

Political Science
Fields of political science: 1. Political Theory 2. Public Law 3. Government 4. Comparative Government 5. International Relations 6. Public Administration

Political Science
7. Public Policy 8. Political Dynamics 9. Government & Business 10. Legislature 11. Geopolitics

Political Science
Values & Uses of Political Science: 1. Awareness of the importance & impact of

government on peoples lives 2. Education for citizenship 3. Development of civic values 4. Preparation for various careers & professions

Politics is the owning & exercising of power,

rule, authority & influence for whatever reasons. It is the art & science of governance Power refers to the ability or the right to do something; the ability to exercise authority over others Authority is the feature of a leader or an institution that compels others to grant it obedience usually because of some ascribed legitimacy

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procedure in a public or private body Influence refers to the act or process or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command & often without deliberate effort or intent


Images of politics in the Philippines: Boardroom politics Bureaucratic politics Congress politics Chief executive politics Courtroom politics Newborn multi-media politics

The Concept of Governance

Transparency of government Simplicity of procedures Responsibility Fight against corruption Individual freedom & collective expression An independent judicial system

Concepts of State & Government

State is a community of persons more or less

numerous , permanently occupying a definite portion of territory , having a government of their own to which a great body of inhabitants render obedience & enjoying freedom from external control Elements of the State: 1. People 2. Territory 3. Government 4. Sovereignty

Origin of States
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Divine right theory Necessity or force theory Paternalistic theory Rousseaus Social Contract Theory Hobbes Social Contract Theory Lockes Social Contract Theory Instinctive Theory Economic Theory Historical or Evolutionary Theory

State Distinguished from Nation

1. A state is a political concept, while a nation

an ethnic concept 2. A state is not subject to external control while a nation may or may not be independent from external control 3. A single state may consist of one or more nations or peoples , a single nation maybe made up of several states

State Distinguished from Government

They are usually regarded as identical. The government is only the agency through

which the state expresses its will A state cannot exist without a government It is possible to have a government without a state

Purpose & Necessity of Government

Advancement of the public welfare:

government exists for the welfare of the people Consequence of absence: without an organized structure of government anarchy & disorder & a general feeling of fear & insecurity will prevail in society

Purpose & Necessity of Government

Through the government, the state is able to

achieve the following purposes: Establishment of domestic order Provision for the common defense of the state Securing for the people the blessings of liberty & justice Promotion of the general welfare Promotion of public morality

Functions of Government
Three basic functions of government: 1. Rule making 2. Rule adjudication 3. Rule execution According to Burns the following are the two

functions of government: 1, Administration 2. Maintenance of authority

Inherent Rights of the State

Inherent rights of the state: 1. Right of existence 2. Right to self-preservation 3. Right to property & domain 4. Right of jurisdiction 5. Right of legation

Fundamental Powers of the State

1. Power of eminent Domain 2. Police power 3. Power of taxation

Forms of Government
A. As to the number of persons exercising

sovereign powers: 1. Monarchy a. Absolute b. Limited c. Constitutional 2. Aristocracy :exercised by a few privileged class 3. Democracy: exercised by a majority of the people a. Direct b. Indirect

Forms of Government
Democracy seeks to promote the following

values: 1. Personal liberty 2. Respect for the individual 3. Equality of opportunity 4. Popular Consent To be successful, democracy needs a well defined process most important of which are: 1. Free & fair elections 3. Majority rule 2. Freedom of expression 4. freedom to assemble & protest

Forms of Government
B. As to the extent of powers exercised by the

central or national powers: 1. Unitary government: control of national & local affairs exercised by the national or central government 2. Federal : powers of government divided: one for national, the other for local affairs As to relationship between the executive & legislative branches of government: 1. Presidential 2. Parliamentary

Forms of Government
1. Presidential Form: a. Powers of government distributed among

the three branches: executive, legislative & judicial b. The chief Executive is who is the Head of the state as well as members of the legislature elected by the people c. The Chief Executive could be remived through impeachment even before the expiration of his term d. The Chief Executive cannot dissolve the legislature at any point in time

Forms of Government
2. Parliamentary Form: a. There is fusion between the Executive &

legislative branches b. Members of the legislature are elected by the people c. The Chief Executive is elected by members of legislature from the majority party d. The Chief Executive stays in power as long as he enjoys the support of the legislature & can be removed by members if they lose their confidence on him

Forms of Government
Governments based on legality or legitimacy: 1. De Jure government 2. De Facto government Governments based on the prevalent political

system & ideology: 1. Liberal democracy: a. Established democracy b. Transitional democracy c. Facade democracy

Forms of Government
2. Authoritarianism is a political system that

rests more on the obedience of the citizens than upon their consent: 1. Communist state 2. One-Party system 3. Military state 4. Dynastic or court regime 5. Theocratic State

The Government of the Philippines in Transition

I. Pre-Spanish Government: 1. Unit of government : Barangay settlements or villages with more or

less 100 families 2. Datu chief of the Barangay,also called rajah, sultan or datu assisted by the council of Elders (Maginoos ) 3. Social classes: a. Nobility b. Freeman c. Serfs d. Slaves 4. Early laws: promulgated by the datus Laws were generally fair

The Government of the Philippines in Transition

II. Government during the Spanish Period: 1. Spanish colonial administration: 1565 to 1821 Philippines directly governed by

the King of Spain through Mexico 1821 to 1898 directly ruled by Spain Council of the Indies responsible for the administration, then the Council of Ministers & the Ministry of Ultramar

The Government of the Philippines in Transition

3. Government was unitary, centralized in

structure, national in scope Barangays consolidated into towns (pueblos) headed by a gobernadorcillo Towns consolidated into provinces headed be the governor, the representative of the GovernorGeneral Cities governed under special charters each with city councils or ayuntamiento 4. The governor-general/captain general or vice royal patron :exercise executive, legislative & judicial powers. As vice royal patron exercised certain religious powers

Philippine Government in Transition

5. The Judiciary: The Royal Audienciawas the


Court. Courts of First Instance were also established There were special courts like the military, naval, ecclesiastical courts. III. Governments during the revolutionary era: 1. Katipunan 2. Biak na Bato /01/1897 to 12/15/1897 3. Dictatorial government- proclamation of independence June 12, 1898 4. Revolutionary government 5. First Philippine Republic Jan, 23,1899 to March 23,1901

Philippine Government in Transition

IV. Government during the American regime: 1.Military Government 2. Civil government: July 14, 1901 headed by the

Governor-General with legislative powers Lawmaking bodies during the American regime: 1901-1907- Phil. Commission headed by the governor 1901-1916-Philippine commission as the Upper House, Philippine Assembly as the Lower House Spooner Law in 1916 gave way to Philippine legislature. The Philippines was represented in the US House of Representatives by the two resident commissioners elected Elected by the Philippine Legislature

The Philippine Government in Transition

Commonwealth Government created pursuant

to the Tydings=Mcduffie Law on March 24,1934 Transition period of ten years prior to granting of independence Inaugurated November 15, 1935 with Manuel L. Quezon & Sergio Osmena as Vice President It was republican in form,under the presidential type Legislative power vested initially in a unicameral legislature: the National Assembly later a bicameral congress. Filipinos had complete control, the Americans on foreign

The Philippine Government in Transition

The commonwealth government functioned in

exile during World War II V. Governments during the Japanese Occupation: Japanese military administration established in Manila January 3, 1942 Philippine Executive Commission the civil government headed by Jorge Vargas composed of Filipinos It exercised both executive & legislative powers The Japanese sponsored Republic; October 14,1943 with Jose P. Laurel as President

The Philippine Government in Transition

Previous Philippine Republics: Republic of the Philippines was formally

inaugurated on July 04,1946 with Manuel Roxas as first President & Elpidio Quirino as Vice President Philippine republics established: First- January 23,1899 under the Malolos constitution Second October 14,1943 under the Japanese sponsored Constitution Third July 14,1946 Fourth Proclaimed by President Marcos under the 1973 Constitution

The Philippine Government in Transition

Provisional Government of 1986: The government established under the President

Aquino was: 1. revolutionary 2. de jure/de facto 3. constitutional & transitory 4. Democratic It derived its powers from the people to whom it was accountable A Provisional constitution was promulgated to replace the 1973 Constitution

Concept of Constitution
It refers to the body of rules & principles in

accordance with which the powers of sovereignty are regularly exercised Constitution of the Philippines is a written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the government are established, limited and defined and by which these powers are distributed among the several departments or branches for their safe & useful exercise for the benefit of the people.

Nature & Purpose or Function of the Constitution

1. Serves as the fundamental or supreme law 2. Establishes basic framework & underlying

principles of government Constitutional Law Branch of public law which treats of constitutions, their nature, formation, amendment & interpretation

Nature & Purpose or Function of the Constitution

Functions of the Constitution: 1. Establishment of the basic framework of the

government 2. Regulation of the rights & freedoms enjoyed by the individual 3. Protection of the people from government abuses

Kinds of Constitution
1. a. b. 2. a. b. 3. a. b.

As to origin & history: Conventional or enacted Cumulative or evolved As to their form: Written Unwritten As to manner of amending them: Rigid or inclusive Flexible or elastic

Requisites of a good Constitution

As to form: 1. Brief 2. Broad 3. Definite As to contents: 1. constitution of government 2. constitution of liberty 3. constitution of sovereignty

Constitution Distinguished from Statute

1. constitution is legislation from the people,

statute from the peoples representatives 2. a constitution states the general framework of the law, a statute provides the details of the subject it treats 3. a constitution is intended to govern the future, a statute to meet existing conditions 4. a constitution is the supreme or fundamental law to which all statutes must conform

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

I. The 1935 Constitution 1. Framing & ratification: a. Approval on March 24, 1934 by President

Franklin Roosevelt of the Tydings McDuffie Law known as Philippine Independence Act b. Approval on May 5, 1934 by the Phil. Legislature of a bill calling a constitutional convention c. Approval on February 8,1935 by the convention of the Constitution d. Approval on march 23,1935 by President Roosevelt of the constitution e. Ratification on May 14, 1935 of the constitution by the Filipino electorate

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

The TydingsMcDuffie Law empowered the Filipinos

to frame their constitution but it imposed certain limitations like: the constitution being republican in form, should contain bill of rights & define the relationships between the US & the Philippines Sources: constitution of the US, the 1898 Malolos constitution, & three organic laws as: Instruction of President Mckinley to the 2nd Phil. Commission,Phil. Bill of 1902, & Jones Law of August 26,1916 The constitution was intended for the Commonwealth & the Republic However it ceased to operate during the Japanese Occupation :1942-1944

The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

Amendments to the 1935 Constitution: 1. Establishment of a bicameral legislature 2. Reeligibility of the President & Vice President

for a second four-year term 3. Creation of the Commission on elections 4. Parity amendments 5. Right of suffrage granted to women

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

The 1973 constitution: 1. Framing of the Constitution: a. Congress on June 17,1969 authorized the

holding of a constitutional convention in 1971 b. Republic Act no. 6132 set Nov. 10,1970 as election day for the 320 delegates to the convention c. Rewriting of the Constitution by the convention started June 01,1971 & was signed Nov. 30,1972 The 1935 Constitution was made the basis The constitution was approved by the Citizen Assemblies

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

Amendments to the 1973 Constitution: 1. making of the President as the regular President

& prime Minister 2. granting of legislative powers to the President 3. establishing of a modified parliamentary form of government 4. permitting natural born citizens who have lost their citizenship to be transferees of private lands 5. allowing the grants of lands of public domain to qualified citizens 6. providing land reforms & urban housing programs

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

The 1987 constitution: Framing & ratification: 1. Under Article 5 of Presidential Proclamation

on March 25,1986, the 1987Constitution was drafted by the Constitutional Commission (CONCOM ) composed of 50 Filipino citizens of recognized probity known for their independence, nationalism & patriotism It convened June 02, 1986 at the Batasang Pambansa, Quezon city

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

Three important drafts used by the

Commission in drafting the 1987 Constitution: 1. Malolos Constitution of 1898 2. 1935 Constitution 3. 1973 Constitution The CONCOM approved the draft on October 12, 1986 & was submitted to the President for approval. The constitution was ratified by the people on February 02, 1986

Features of the 1987 Constitution

The Constitution of 1987 is pro-life pro-people pro-poor pro Filipino anti-dictatorship