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ECOSYSTEM

A PRESENTATON
BY
JHANSRAN.R AP/ECE
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Definition
A group of organisms interacting among
themselves and with environment is know
as ecosystem. Thus, an ecosystem is a
community of different species interacting
with one another and with the non living
environment for exchange of energy and
matter.
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resh water ecosystem
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Ecology
Branch of biology that attempts to
understand the relationship between living
organisms and their environment, and the
associated energy-flows
Environment consist of both biotic and
abiotic components
Ecology is the study of ecosystem.
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Types of ecosystem
ECOSYSTEM
TUR
RTIFICI
TERRESTI
"UTIC
MRIE
FRES WTER
OTIC
ETIC
Stream, river etc.,
Lake, pond, pools, etc.,
Cropland, dams, etc.,
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Ecosystem characteristics
Ecosystem show large variations in their
Size
Structure
Composition etc.,
All the ecosystem are characterized by
certain basic structural and functional features which
are common.
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Structure of ecosystem
Composition and organization of biological
communities and abiotic components constitute
the structure of an ecosystem
otc structure abotc structure
Producers physical factors
Consumers chemical factors
Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Detritivores
Decomposers
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The plants, animals and microorganisms
present in an ecosystem form the biotic
component.
These organism have different nutritional
behavior and status in the ecosystems and
are accordingly known as producers or
consumers, based on how do they get
their food.
Biotic structure
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producers
Producer- uII uutotrophs
(pIunts), they trup enerqy
from the sun,co
Z,
ChIorophyII
throuqh photosynthesis
Chemo-uutotrophs:
microorqunism which cun
produce orqunic mutter
throuqh oidution of certuin
chemicuIs in ubsence of
sunIiqht
W ottom of the food chuin
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Consumer
uII heterotrophs: they qet their orqunic
food by feedinq on other orqunisms
W Herbivores
W Curnivores
W Omnivores
W Detritivores
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Herbivores
Eut pIunts
W Primury consumers
W Prey unimuIs
W Eq: rubbit, insect,
mun
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Consumer-Curnivores
eut meut
W Predutors
Hunt prey
unimuIs for food
f they feed on herbivores
They ure secondury consumers
Eq: froq
f they feed on other curnivores they
ure tertiury consumers
Eq: snuke, biq fish etc,
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Consumer- Omnivores
eof bofh pIonfs
ond onimoIs
Eq: fox, mony birds, humons.
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Consumer- defrifivores
Saprotrophs: they feed on parts of
dead organisms, waste of living
organism, and partially decomposed
matter
Eg: beetles, termites, ants,
earthworms etc.,
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Decomposers
W reokdown fhe
compIex compounds of
deod ond decoyinq
pIonfs ond onimoIs info
simpIer moIecuIes fhof
con be obsorbed
W Eq: bocferio, funqi
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Abiotic structure
Physical and chemical components of
ecosystem constitute its abiotic structure.
t includes
Climatic factors
Edaphic factors
Geographical factors
Energy
Nutrients
Toxic substance.
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Physical factors
The sunlight & shade
ntensity of solar flux
Duration of sun hours
Average temperature
Maximum & minimum temperature
Annual rainfall
Wind
Latitude
Altitude
Soil type
Water availability
these features have strong influence on
ecosystem.
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Chemical factors
Availability of essential nutrients like
Carbon
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Sulphur
Level of toxic substance
Salts causing salinity
Organic substance present in soil or water
influences the functioning of ecosystem.
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FunctonaI ttrbutes
Ecosystem performs under natural
conditions in a systematic way.
Energy, various nutrients and water are
required for life processes which are
exchanged by biotic components within
themselves and with abiotic components.
The major functional attributes of an
ecosystem are as follows
a) ood chain, ood webs, trophic structure
b) Energy flow
c) Cycling of nutrients(Biogeochemical cycles)
d) Primary & Secondary production
e) Ecosystem development & regulation
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Trophic Structure
The structure and function of ecosystem
are closely related so, they need to be
studied together.
The flow of energy is mediated through a
series of feeding relationships in definite
sequence known as food chain.
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The producers and consumers are arranged
in ecosystem in a definite manner and they
interaction along with population size are
expressed together as trophic structure.
Each food level is known as trophic level
and the amount of living matter at each
trophic level at a given time is known as
standing crop or standing biomass.
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Trophic LeveIs
Producers- Autotrophs
Primury consumers- Herbivores
Secondury consumers-
smuII curnivores
Tertiury
consumers- top
curnivores
E
N
E
R
S
Y
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ood Chain
The sequence of eating and being eaten
in an ecosystem is known as food chain.
All organisms, living or dead, are potential
food for some other organism and thus
there is essentially no waste in the
functioning of natural ecosystem.
e.g., grass-> grass hopper-> frog->
snake-> hawk(grass land ecosystem)
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Types of food chains
Two major types of food chains
Grazing food chain
t starts with green plants and culminates in
carnivores.
Eg: grass-> rabbit-> fox.
Detritus food chain
it starts with dead organic matter which the
detritivores and decomposers consume
Eg: leaf litter-> algae-> crabs-> small fish->
large fish.
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Food Web
ood web is a network of food chains
where different types of organisms are
connected at different trophic levels, so
that there are a No: of options for eating
and being eaten at each trophic level.
the ecosystems are much more complex,
they have rich species diversity and
therefore food webs are much more
complex.
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ood chuin ood web
(|ust 1 puth of enerqy) (uII possibIe enerqy puths)
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Why food web instead of
ood chain
ood webs give greater stability to the
ecosystem.
n food chain if one species becomes
extinct or one species suffers then the
subsequent species in trophic level also
affected.
n food web, there are No: of options
available at each trophic level so if one
species is affected it does not affect other
trophic level.
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Significant of food chain
and food web
ood chain & food web play a significant
role in ecosystem because, the important
functions of energy flow & nutrient cycling
takes place through them.
ood chains help in maintainindg and
regulating the population size of different
animals and thus maintains the ecological
balance.
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ood chains show a unique property of
biological magnification of some chemicals
There are several pesticides, heavy
metals and other chemicals which are
non-biodegradable in nature. Such
chemicals are not decomposed by micro
organisms & they keep on passing from
one trophic level to another. And, at each
successive trophic level they keep on
increasing in concentration. This
phenomenon is called Biomagnifications
or Biological magnification
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