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# Introduction to Linear Regression and Correlation Analysis

## Chapter 15 - Chapter Outcomes

After studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Calculate and interpret the simple correlation between two variables. Determine whether the correlation is significant. Calculate and interpret the simple linear regression coefficients for a set of data. Understand the basic assumptions behind regression analysis.

## Chapter 15 - Chapter Outcomes

(continued)

After studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Calculate and interpret confidence intervals for the regression coefficients. Recognize regression analysis applications for purposes of prediction and description. Recognize some potential problems if regression analysis is used incorrectly.

Scatter Diagrams
A scatter plot is a graph that may be used to represent the relationship between two variables. Also referred to as a scatter diagram. diagram

## Dependent and Independent Variables

A dependent variable is the variable to be predicted or explained in a regression model. This variable is assumed to be functionally related to the independent variable.

## Dependent and Independent Variables

An independent variable is the variable related to the dependent variable in a regression equation. The independent variable is used in a regression model to estimate the value of the dependent variable.

(a) Linear

(b) Linear

(c) Curvilinear

(d) Curvilinear

## Two Variable Relationships

(e) No Relationship

Correlation
The correlation coefficient is a quantitative measure of the strength of the linear relationship between two variables. The correlation ranges from + 1.0 to 1.0. A correlation of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship, whereas a correlation of 0 indicates no linear relationship.

Correlation
SAMPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

r=

( x x )( y y ) [ ( x x ) ][ ( y y )
2

where: r = Sample correlation coefficient n = Sample size x = Value of the independent variable y = Value of the dependent variable

Correlation
SAMPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT or the algebraic equivalent:

r=

[n( x 2 ) ( x) 2 ][n( y 2 ) ( y ) 2 ]

n xy x y

Correlation
Sales y 487 445 272 641 187 440 346 238 312 269 655 563 Years x 3 5 2 8 2 6 7 1 4 2 9 6

yx 1,461 2,225 544 5,128 374 2,640 2,422 238 1,248 538 5,895 3,378

y2 237,169 198,025 73,984 410,881 34,969 193,600 119,716 56,644 97,344 72,361 429,025 316,969

x2 9 25 4 64 4 36 49 1 16 4 81 36

= 4,855

## = 55 = 26,091 = 2,240,687 = 4,855

Correlation
n xy x y
2

r=

[n( x ) ( x) ][n( y ) ( y ) ]
2 2 2

r=

= 0.8325

Correlation

## Excel Correlation Output (Figure 11-5)

Correlation
TEST STATISTIC FOR CORRELATION

t=

1 r n2
2

where: t = Number of standard deviations r is from 0 r = Simple correlation coefficient n = Sample size

df = n 2

## Correlation Significance Test

H 0 : = 0.0 (no correlation) H A : 0 .0

= 0.05
Rejection Region /2 = 0.025

## Rejection Region /2 = 0.025

t.025 = 2.228

0
1 n 0 . = 64 9 2 . 3 7 1 5 2 1 0

t.025 = 2.228
t r = 0 = . 8 1 2 3 2 5 r

Since t=4.752 > 2.048, reject H0, there is a significant linear relationship

Correlation
Spurious correlation occurs when there is a correlation between two otherwise unrelated variables.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

Simple linear regression analysis analyzes the linear relationship that exists between a dependent variable and a single independent variable.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL (POPULATION MODEL)

y = 0 + 1 x +
where: y = Value of the dependent variable x = Value of the independent variable 0 = Populations y-intercept 1 = Slope of the population regression line = Error term, or residual

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

The simple linear regression model has four assumptions: Individual values if the error terms, i, are statistically independent of one another. The distribution of all possible values of is normal. The distributions of possible i values have equal variances for all value of x. The means of the dependent variable, for all specified values of the independent variable, y, can be connected by a straight line called the population regression model.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS In the simple regression model, there are two coefficients: the intercept and the slope.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

The interpretation of the regression slope coefficient is that is gives the average change in the dependent variable for a unit increase in the independent variable. The slope coefficient may be positive or negative, depending on the relationship between the

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

The least squares criterion is used for determining a regression line that minimizes the sum of squared residuals.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

A residual is the difference between the actual value of the dependent variable and the value predicted by the regression model.

y y

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

Sales in Thousands
Y 390 400 300 312 20 0 100

y = 150 + 60 x

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

ESTIMATED REGRESSION MODEL (SAMPLE MODEL)

yi = b0 + b1 x
where:

## y = Estimated, or predicted, y value

b0 = Unbiased estimate of the regression intercept b1 = Unbiased estimate of the regression slope x = Value of the independent variable

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

LEAST SQUARES EQUATIONS

b1

algebraic equivalent:
b1 =

( x x )( y y ) = (x x)
2

x y xy
n ( x) 2 x2 n

and

b0 = y b1 x

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS

SSE = y b0 y b1 xy
2

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

(Midwest Example)
Sales y 487 445 272 641 187 440 346 238 312 269 655 563 Years x 3 5 2 8 2 6 7 1 4 2 9 6

xy 1,461 2,225 544 5,128 374 2,640 2,422 238 1,248 538 5,895 3,378

y2 237,169 198,025 73,984 410,881 34,969 193,600 119,716 56,644 97,344 72,361 429,025 316,969

x2 9 25 4 64 4 36 49 1 16 4 81 36

= 4,855

b1 =

x y xy
n ( x ) 2 x2 n

## b0 = y b1 x = 404.5833 49.9101(4.5833) = 175.8288

The least squares regression line is:

y = 175.8288 + 49.9101( x)

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 1 10 11 SS MS F Significance F 191600.622 191600.622 22.58527906 0.000777416 84834.29469 8483.429469 276434.9167

## Intercept Years with Midwest

Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% 175.8288191 54.98988674 3.197475563 0.00953244 53.30369475 298.3539434 53.30369475 298.3539434 49.91007584 10.50208428 4.752397191 0.000777416 26.50996978 73.3101819 26.50996978 73.3101819

## Least Squares Regression Properties

The sum of the residuals from the least squares regression line is 0. The sum of the squared residuals is a minimum. The simple regression line always passes through the mean of the y variable and the mean of the x variable. The least squares coefficients are unbiased estimates of 0 and 1.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

SUM OF RESIDUALS

( y y) = 0
SUM OF SQUARED RESIDUALS

( y y)

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

TOTAL SUM OF SQUARES

where: TSS = Total sum of squares n = Sample size y = Values of the dependent variable y = Average value of the dependent variable

TSS = ( y y )

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

SUM OF SQUARES ERROR (RESIDUALS)

SSE = ( y y )

where: SSE = Sum of squares error n = Sample size y y = Values of the dependent variable = Estimated value for the average of

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

SUM OF SQUARES REGRESSION

where: SSR = Sum of squares regression y = Average value of the dependent variable y = Values of the dependent variable y = Estimated value for the average of

SSR = ( y y )

SUMS OF SQUARES

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

The coefficient of determination is the portion of the total variation in the dependent variable that is explained by its relationship with the independent variable. The coefficient of determination is also called R-squared and is denoted as R2.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION (R2)

SSR R = TSS
2

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

(Midwest Example)

2

## SSR 191,600.62 R = = = 0.6931 TSS 276,434.90

69.31% of the variation in the sales data for this sample can be explained by the linear relationship between sales and years of experience.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION SINGLE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE CASE 2 2

R =r

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE REGRESSION SLOPE COEFFICIENT (POPULATION)

b1 =
where:

(x x)

regression slope (Called the standard error of the slope) = Population standard error of the estimate

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

ESTIMATOR FOR THE STANDARD ERROR OF THE ESTIMATE

SSE s = n k 1
where: SSE = Sum of squares error n = Sample size k = number of independent variables in the model

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

ESTIMATOR FOR THE STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE REGRESSION SLOPE

sb1 =
where:

(x x)

( x ) x n
2

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

TEST STATISTIC FOR TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE OF THE REGRESSION SLOPE

b1 1 t= sb1

df = n 2

where: b1 = Sample regression slope coefficient 1 = Hypothesized slope sb1 = Estimator of the standard error of the slope

## Significance Test of Regression Slope

H 0 : 1 = 0.0 H A : 1 0 .0

= 0.05
Rejection Region /2 = 0.025 Rejection Region /2 = 0.025

Since t=4.753 > 2.048, reject H0: conclude that the true slope is not zero

4 9 . 9 = 1 s
1

t.025 = 2.228
1 0 = . 5 4 0 . 7 5 3

0
b
1

t.025 = 2.228
t 1 = b

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

MEAN SQUARE REGRESSION

where: SSR = Sum of squares regression k = Number of independent variables in the model

SSR MSR = k

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

MEAN SQUARE ERROR

where: SSE = Sum of squares error n = Sample size k = Number of independent variables in the model

SSE MSE = n k 1

Significance Test
H 0 : 1 = 0.0 H A : 1 0.0
F Ratio MSR 191,600.6 = = 22.59 MSE 8,483.43
Rejection Region = 0.05

= 0.05

F = 4.96

Since F= 22.59 > 4.96, reject H0: conclude that the regression model explains a significant amount of the variation in the dependent variable

## Simple Regression Steps

x Develop a scatter plot of y and x. You are looking for a linear relationship between the two variables. y Calculate the least squares regression line for the sample data. z Calculate the correlation coefficient and the simple coefficient of determination, R2. { Conduct one of the significance tests.

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ESTIMATE FOR THE REGRESSION SLOPE

b1 t / 2 sb1
or equivalently:

b1 t / 2

where: sb1 = Standard error of the regression slope coefficient s = Standard error of the estimate

(x x)

df = n 2
2

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

y CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR |
y t / 2 s
where:

xp

1 + 2 n (x x)

( x p x )2

## y = Point estimate of the dependent

variable t = Critical value with n - 2 d.f. s = Standard error of the estimate n = Sample size x xp = Specific value of the independent

## Simple Linear Regression Analysis

PREDICTION INTERVAL FOR | x p Y

1 (xp x) y t / 2 s 1 + + 2 n (x x)
2

Residual Analysis
Before using a regression model for description or prediction, you should do a check to see if the assumptions concerning the normal distribution and constant variance of the error terms have been satisfied. One way to do this is through the use of residual plots. plots

Key Terms
Coefficient of Determination Correlation Coefficient Dependent Variable Independent Variable Least Squares Criterion Regression Coefficients

Regression Slope Coefficient Residual Scatter Plot Simple Linear Regression Analysis Spurious Correlation