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The Statement of the Problem, Objectives & Research Questions (Quantitative)

Dr Tan Ming Tang

Quantitative Research
Is about quantifying the relationships between an independent variable and a dependent or outcome variable eg by using correlation coefficient, the difference between two means. Eg: The use of motivational techniques in improving reading skills.

Research process - quantitative


Define research question/ statement of the problem Objective/Purpose of the study Review situation and literature Develop hypotheses Design your Research Type of research, research design Sample with rationale Develop instruments reliability & validity Data collection Data analysis and Evaluation Hypothesis testing (Does the results support the research questions?) Conclusion Recommendations for future research Implications for practice and research

Bab 1 : Pernyataan Masalah


Pengenalan Permasalahan kajian Kerangka konseptual kajian Tujuan kajian Persoalan kajian Hipotesis kajian Definisi operasional istilah kajian Kesignifikanan kajian Batasan kajian Penutup

Sources of Research Problem


Own interest & experience To test certain theories used To replicate past research Conflicting findings of past research

The Research Problem


A good research problem must be researchable. That is, the researcher must have access to the resources and data necessary to complete a study. Describes what your research is about & what your aims are. A good statement gives an overall picture, focuses on the variables involved & the direction the research is heading.

Example of a problem statement it needs to be elaborated


The present study is an attempt to identify students disciplinary problems and the fear and anxiety they have created to the surrounding communities. A study of the effects of using courseware X on science achievement of the Form 4 B class in a school in Kuching. A survey of teachers perceptions of their roles in school in Kuantan.

Elaboration: The Statement of the Problem


1) What are the variables in the study? 2) What is the reason to study these variables? 3) Problem statement? 4) Any related research incorporated? 5) After finding the results, can use it for what purpose?

Although most teachers are able to identify the selfregulated learners among their students, there is generally a lack of knowledge about how students regulate their own learning & the factors affecting it. As a result, teachers are unable to create suitable learning environments for encouraging self-regulated learning. Most classrooms are still populated with students who are not self-regulating their learning (Boekaerts, 1997). Much of students learning is still very much steered & guided by the teacher; a situation which does not invite students to use or develop their cognitive or motivational self-regulatory skills (Zimmerman, 1989a). Indeed, if teachers are to be effective facilitators of learning, they need to have greater insights into their students self-regulated learning behavior and the factors affecting it. Mary Wong (2001)

One of the main aims of science education in Malaysia is to develop the potentials of individuals in an overall and integrated manner so as to produce Malaysian citizens who are not only scientifically and technologically literate but also competent in scientific skills (Malaysia, PP Kurikulum, 2002). However, owing to a keen emphasis on examination-oriented teaching, the teaching and learning of science in some context, has becomes largely teacher-centered, thereby ignoring the development and mastery of scientific and thinking skills among students as required by the curriculum (Sharifah, 2001; p. 42). From here, there is thus a need to look into the training of the Malaysian science teachers on whether enough emphasis is placed on teaching and facilitating the use of scientific skills in science laboratory investigations. At present, Malaysias future science teachers are being trained and molded at the teacher training colleges and universities scattered across the nation. As regard to their training in the field of laboratory work, there is a lack of knowledge about their conceptions and applications of scientific evidence in science investigations. The scarcity of documented studies in Malaysia on the conceptions and applications of scientific evidence certainly confirmed it. Therefore it was timely for this present study on the conceptions and applications of scientific evidence be undertaken in order to expand this field of scientific knowledge.

Tujuan Kajian
Biasa dinyata pada baris pertama abstrak kajian Hasrat utama pengkaji menjalankan kajian Intipati kajian Perlu dinyata dengan tepat & jelas

Tujuan Kajian
Biasa dimula dengan ayat-ayat berikut : Tujuan kajian ini ialah .. Kajian ini ingin menyelidik . Dalam kajian ini, pengkaji ingin mengenal pasti .

Soalan Kajian
Tujuan kajian Objektif kajian Persoalan kajian

Contoh Soalan Kajian Kuantitatif


Apakah kesan keluarga terhadap pembelajaran anak-anak di sekolah ? Apakah faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pencapaian pensyarah di IPGM? Sejauh manakah faktor keluarga mempengaruhi disiplin pelajar ?

Contoh Soalan Kajian Kuantitatif


Bagaimanakah perubahan sikap terhadap disiplin berlaku dalam organisasi? Apakah pandangan pelajar terhadap larangan keluar dari rumah pada waktu malam? Bagaimanakah sambutan guru-guru terhadap pemansuhan pengajaran Sains & Matematik dalam Bahasa Inggeris?

Peranan Soalan Kajian


Menentukan prosedur perancangan kajian Memberi haluan & kesepaduan dalam kajian Menentukan batasan kajian Menentukan data yang diperlukan Mengawal penyelidik daripada hilang fokus Menyediakan rangka untuk menulis laporan

Contoh menulis Tujuan, Objektif & Persoalan Kajian


Tajuk Kajian : Projek KIA2M di SK Putra, Simpang Durian Pendekatan Kualitatif dgn pemerhatian, temu bual & analisis dokumen Responden kajian : 8 orang pensyarah K.Raja Melewar Tujuan kajian : Kajian ini ingin meninjau aktiviti KIA2M yang dilaksanakan, melihat masalah utama yang dihadapi dan mencadangkan langkah-langkah untuk mengatasi masalah itu.

Objektif & Persoalan Kajian


Objektif Kajian : Berikut adalah objektif-objektif kajian : i. meninjau aktiviti KIA2M yang dilaksanakan ii. melihat masalah utama yang dihadapi iii. mencadangkan langkah-langkah untuk mengatasi masalah Persoalan Kajian : i. Bagaimanakah proses p & p dilaksanakan dlm projek KIA2M di SK Putra? ii. Apakah status kejayaan projek KIA2M di SK Putra? iii. Apakah masalah utama yg dihadapi dlm projek KIA2M di SK Putra? iv. Apakah cadangan utk mengatasi masalah dlm projek KIA2M di SK Putra?

Rubrik menyemak kualiti Persoalan Kajian


A Persoalan kajian jelas, tepat & dpt mengendalikan suatu isu yang berasaskan tinjauan literatur yang kukuh, ada asas teori B Objektif, persoalan kajian/ hipotesis logik & hasil kajian dapat memberi sumbangan C Tujuan kajian menggunakan istilah yang jelas, berfokus & boleh dicapai D Dapat kenal pasti masalah kajian yang dapat dikaji dengan sumber & masa yang ada E Masalah kajian tidak patut & tidak sesuai dikaji

Research Objective
The main aims of this study were to describe science teacher trainees understanding of scientific evidence regarding measurement reliability and design validity in investigative tasks.

Research Questions: Characteristics of a good question


Feasible: It can be investigated. Clarity: Most people would understand and agree with the idea of the question. Significance: It is worth investigating Ethical: It will not harm anyone, nor damage anything. It is not being investigated for illegal, immoral, or malicious purposes.

Research Questions
What aspects of scientific evidence in the design, measurement and data handling stages are used by the science teacher trainees in conducting the three novel physical science experiments? What are the science teacher trainees conceptions of five scientific evidence aspects associated with the measurement reliability and design validity categories that are employed in carrying out each novel physical science experiment?

Qualitative Research
Example of research topic/statement: Behavioral characteristics of truants Research Objective: To identify the behavioral characteristics of truants when in the classrooms. Research Question: What are the identifiable behavioral characteristics of truants when they are in the classroom?

Research Hypotheses
A formulation of a potential solution to a problem in a form of a statement. - Statistically tested (Not all research need hypothesis descriptive & qualitative research that do not use figures cannot be tested statistically)

Research Hypothesis (Alternative) and Statistical Hypothesis (Nul)


Ho: There is no difference in science means score between Form 3A that follows cooperative learning from that of Form 3B that did not follow cooperative learning. HA: The mean score of science for Form 3A that follows cooperative learning is higher than that of students in Form 3B who did not experience cooperative learning.

Directional Hypothesis
A one-directional prediction: The researcher is very certain that the mean score of the experimental group is higher than that of the control group. H0: No difference in the mean score .. HA: Students who follow cooperative learning obtained higher mean score in science than those who follow the lecture style of learning.

Non-directional Hypothesis
The researcher did not predict which group of students would perform better. Ho: There is no difference between the mean score of .. HA: There is a difference between the mean score of science of Form 3 students who follow cooperative learning and those using the lecture style of learning.

The End