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# Effect of temperature in P-N diodes

When T increases, 1. Cut in voltage decreases 2. Forward I increases 3. Reverse saturation I increases 4. VT increases 5. Reverse VBR increases

Zener diode
Operates in reverse breakdown region Breakdown V 3 V to 200 V according to doping In forward bias ,it acts like P-N junction diode During reverse bias:  Till Zener breakdown voltage, reverse saturation I flows  Then I flows drastically keeping the voltage constant operating region of Zener

## Zener diode reverse biasing

Knee sharp change in reverse characteristics IZK(Current in knee):  The minimum I, zener must carry to operate in reverse breakdown region

## IZT (Zener test current):

 Current at which nominal zener breakdown voltage specified

## IZmax Max current that zener can carry safely

PZ=IZ*VZ ,When I increases,power dissipation also increases Over power will damage diode & so R is used

## Zener diode equivalent circuit

Zener diode equivalent circuit Zener diode in ideal condition:  Indicated by battery of voltage Vz which is constant in zener region  Zener impedance is very small Zener diode in practical condition:  It has internal impedance  Indicated by battery of voltage Vz with series R  Dynamic R=VZ/IZ

## Effect of T in Zener diode

Temperature coefficient: Change in zener voltage for every celsius in T TC=VZ/VZ(T1-T0)*100 T1-Final T of junction;T0-25 C VZ- change in zener value due to T VZ= TCVZ T/100 Tc +ve,when increase in Vz due to increase in T Tc -ve,when increase in Vz due to decrease in T For Vz >6V ,Tc is +ve For Vz <6V ,Tc is -ve

Types of breakdown

Applications

## Zener as voltage regulator

Input or line regulation using zener diode In the circuit, as input V varies,zener Iz changes Constant voltage across output terminals maintained R- current limiting resistor RL-Load resistance Here, Vin=VR+VZ where Vz is constant

Varactor diode PN junction diode having high junction capacitance(transition capacitance) when reverse biased Here capacitance controlled by reverse voltage Other names: Varicap Tuning diode Epicap Voltage variable capacitance

## Varactor diode equivalent circuit

CT= A/w - permittivity of semiconductor A-Area of cross section w-width of depletion layer In equivalent ckt, RR=Reverse resistance(very large) RS=Geometric resistance(very small) Ls=inductance for limiting frequency CT = K in terms of reverse bias voltage (Vj+VR)n

K-Constant-depends on semiconductor material Vj-junction potential VR-reverse bias voltage n=1/2 for alloy junctions n=1/3 for diffused junctions When reverse bias increased, width increases and so CT decreases Effect of temperature: When T increases, CT increases small amount

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