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Feedback, Reinforcement, & Intrinsic Motivation

PED 374 Psychology of Sport

Introduction


I try never to plant a negative seed. I try to make every comment a positive comment. There s a lot of evidence to support positive management.  Jimmy Johnson, College and Professional Football Coach To really win, you have to get every player to go beyond his capabilities. He must feel great about himself He must feel that his coaches or supervisors have total confidence in his ability, and he must feel that his weaknesses are small and his strengths are much bigger. You do that by positive reinforcement, making sure that no one thinks negatively at any time.  Rick Pitino, Basketball Coach

Much of human interaction consists of attempts to influence other people s behaviors Influence attempts occur frequently in sport contexts:


Athletes interact with teammates, opponents, officials, and coaches Creating a good learning environment where athletes acquire technical skills to succeed

Coaches influence athletes in many ways:




Psychology of coaching can be regarded as a set of strategies to increase ability to influence behaviors effectively.

The ABCs of Behavioral Control


Influential approach in psychology Operant conditioning (A) Antecedents or environmental stimuli; (B) behaviors in which the person engages; and (C) Consequences that follow the behaviors.


Antecedents are the stimuli that control behavior. Antecedents that signal the likely consequences of particular behaviors are called discriminative stimuli  Skill learning in sport often involves learning to read environment and respond.  EX: basketball player learns how to set up the offense when the opponent switches from one defense to another

Response Consequences:


The key is on what happens after the response is made:

Present Positive Reinforcement (Strengthens behaviors) Positive Stimuli

Remove
Extinction (weakens behaviors) Response cost punishment (weakens behavior)

Aversive Stimuli

Punishment (suppresses / weakens behaviors)

Negative reinforcement (strengthens behaviors)

Negative Aspects of Punishment


  

Punishment works on the basis of raising fear; raises preoccupation with negatives Under threat of punishment, athletes view competition as more of a threat. Ironically, coaches with this style, increase likelihood of mistakes they are trying to avoid. Negative approach coaches usually succeed because:
   

They They They They

are also able to communicate caring have very talented athletes recruit thick-skinned athletes thickare such skillful teachers, this overrides their negative approach

What About Response Cost?: Cost?:  Fines, loss of privileges, benchings are examples removal of noncontigent reinforcers.  Punishment through deprivation has 2 advantages over aversive punishment:
1. 2.

It does not create as much fear of failure The punisher is not modeling aggression or other negative behavior

The Positive Approach: Getting Good Things to Happen




Reinforcement takes many forms:




Verbal compliments, smiles or other nonverbals; behaviors that convey approval; increased privileges; awards Finding effective reinforcers that work with a given athlete Making reinforcement depend on performance of a desired behavior Making sure the athlete understands WHY reinforcement is given

Effective requires:
  

Schedules and Timing of Reinforcement --

 

How frequently should reinforcement be given? The Coach or Leader has 2 related challenges: 1. Athletes have to be instructed in skills until they master them 2. Coach needs to figure out how the athletes are to maintain a high proficiency level Initially, in skill development, reinforcement should be continuous Once the skill is well learned, reinforcement should be on a partial schedule. Timing of reinforcement is critical should be immediate It is natural to praise an athlete who has just made a great play; it is less natural to reinforce an athlete who tried but failed.

Positive Reinforcement and Motivational Climate


 

Positive approach is designed to foster a task-oriented motivational climate. taskAthletes in ego-oriented motivational climates: ego

Experience reinforcement upon outperforming others; punishment of unsuccessful performance; emphasis on social comparison

Performance Feedback and Motivation: Motivation:  Objective FB effectively increases motivation:


   

It can correct misperceptions (misattributions) It creates a stimulus for athletes to experience positive emotions It links well with personal and collective goal setting FB leads to increases in self-efficacy self-

Positive Reinforcement and Motivational Climate (Cont)


Instructional Benefits of FB: Objective FB provides info. About: 1. The specific behaviors that should be performed 2. The levels of proficiency that should be achieved 3. The athlete s current sense of proficiency in that skill

FB should be based on successful execution of skills and NOT outcome

Guidelines to getting positive things to happen:


Administering Positive Reinforcement: 1. Be liberal with reinforcement, especially early in learning 2. Have realistic standards; expect compliance with them 3. Reinforce desired behaviors AS SOON AS THEY OCCUR 4. Reinforce process and execution, not just outcome 5. Help athletes set positive, individual, performance-based goals performanceWhat about Reacting to/giving FB based on mistakes?: mistakes?: 1. Mistakes should be viewed as learning opportunities 2. Ask the athlete what they should have done increases reinforcement of the CORRECT performance principle 3. With motor skills, we are visual learners; DEMONSTRATE! 4. Use the sandwich approach 5. Limit criticism to behaviors that are within the athlete s control 6. Avoid punishment; it works by building fear of failure

The Sandwich Approach to giving FB


1. Find something the athlete did right and reinforce it

Tell the athlete how to correct a mistake emphasize the good things that will happen as a result

End with a general performance-related positive statement

Believing one can: The Construct of Self-Efficacy Self


1. 2.

SelfSelf-efficacy is defined as a person s judgment about their capability to successfully perform a specific task Two major principles:
Our efficacy beliefs affect our thought patterns and responses SelfSelf-efficacy is positively related to positive motivational patterns

High Self-Efficacy does not guarantee outcome, BUT increases Selfprobability that athlete will do well in terms of performance factors they can control Implications for Practice: 6 key determinants of self-efficacy: self-efficacy:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Most influential determinant previous successful performance Vicarious experience when we see another (similar) person succeed Verbal persuasion either ours, or someone else Our physiological state is it appraised as positive or negative? Our emotional state same thing as above Imagined experiences If you can see it, you can be it

Doing it for the Joy: Determinants of Intrinsic Motivation


 

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When intrinsically motivated, we do activity for it s own sake Different types of motivation vary according to their level of selfselfdetermination: Athletes who are amotivated  They have no sense of personal control; they have no real reasons for doing the activity External regulation  Behavior is performed to satisfy external demand or stems from external reward Introjected regulation  Athletes participate b/c inside they feel they HAVE to participate. Identified regulation  Behavior is done out of free choice but as a means to an end Intrinsic Motivation  The athlete feels competent, autonomous, and connected with others

Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards


Intrinsic motivation: Striving inwardly to be competent and self-determining. selfBasic question: Do extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation? Research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person s intrinsic motivation for the activity.

Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards

Cognitive Evaluation Theory


How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory


Controlling aspects: Rewards that are perceived to control a person or suggest the person is not competent decrease intrinsic motivation. Informational aspects: Rewards that increase the information aspect and provide positive feedback about competence increase intrinsic motivation.
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Cognitive Evaluation Theory


Success and failure: Competitive success increases intrinsic motivation, whereas competitive failure decreases intrinsic motivation. Function and significance: How a reward affects intrinsic motivation depends on whether the recipient perceives it to be more controlling or more informational.

How Extrinsic Rewards Affect Intrinsic Motivation in Sport


Scholarships: Athletic scholarships can either decrease or increase athletes levels of intrinsic motivation, depending on which is more emphasized the controlling or informational aspects.

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How Extrinsic Rewards Affect Intrinsic Motivation in Sport


Competitive success and failure: Competitive success increases intrinsic motivation, whereas competitive failure tends to decrease intrinsic motivation. Feedback: Positive feedback increases intrinsic motivation.