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Slides based upon books by Tse/Viswanath, Goldsmith, Rappaport, J.Andrews etal

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

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u

Wireless channel feels very different from a wired channel. u Not a point-to-point link u Variable capacity, errors, delays u Capacity is shared with interferers Characteristics of the channel appear to change randomly with time, which makes it difficult to design reliable systems with guaranteed performance. Cellular model vs reality:

Cellular system designs are interference-limited, i.e. the interference dominates the noise floor

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u

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Channel varies at two spatial scales: * Large scale fading: path loss, shadowing * Small scale fading: Multi-path fading (frequency selectivity, coherence b/w, ~500kHz), Doppler (time-selectivity, coherence time, ~2.5ms) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 5

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Game plan

u

We wish to understand how physical parameters such as u carrier frequency u mobile speed u bandwidth u delay spread u angular spread impact how a wireless channel behaves from the cell planning and communication system point of view. We start with deterministic physical model and progress towards statistical models, which are more useful for design and performance evaluation.

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u

In free space, received power attenuates like 1/r2. With reflections and obstructions, can attenuate even more rapidly with distance. Detailed modelling complicated. Time constants associated with variations are very long as the mobile moves, many seconds or minutes. More important for cell site planning, less for communication system design.

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u u u u

Maxwells equations u Complex and impractical Free space path loss model u Too simple Ray tracing models u Requires site-specific information Empirical Models u Dont always generalize to other environments Simplified power falloff models u Main characteristics: good for high-level analysis

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Free-Space-Propagation

u

If oscillating field at transmitter, it produces three components: u The electrostatic and inductive fields that decay as 1/d2 or 1/d3 u The EM radiation field that decays as 1/d (power decays as 1/d2)

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u u

Tx: a sinusoid: cos 2 ft Electric Field: source antenna gain ( s) Product of antenna gains ( )

Linearity is a good assumption, but time-invariance lost when Tx, Rx or environment in motion

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Note: Electric Field (E) decays as 1/r, but Power (Pd) decays as 1/r2 Path Loss in dB:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u

dB (Decibel) = 10 log 10 (Pr/Pt) Log-ratio of two signal levels. Named after Alexander Graham Bell. For example, a cable has 6 dB loss or an amplifier has 15 dB of gain. System gains and losses can be added/subtracted, especially when changes are in several orders of magnitude. dBm (dB milliWatt) Relative to 1mW, i.e. 0 dBm is 1 mW (milliWatt). Small signals are -ve (e.g. -83dBm). Typical 802.11b WLAN cards have +15 dBm (32mW) of output power. They also spec a -83 dBm RX sensitivity (minimum RX signal level required for 11Mbps reception). For example, 125 mW is 21 dBm and 250 mW is 24 dBm. (commonly used numbers) dBi (dB isotropic) for EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) The gain a given antenna has over a theoretical isotropic (point source) antenna. The gain of microwave antennas (above 1 GHz) is generally given in dBi. dBd (dB dipole) The gain an antenna has over a dipole antenna at the same frequency. A dipole antenna is the smallest, least gain practical antenna that can be made. A dipole antenna has 2.14 dB gain over a 0 dBi isotropic antenna. Thus, a simple dipole antenna has a gain of 2.14 dBi or 0 dBd and is used as a standard for calibration. The term dBd (or sometimes just called dB) generally is used to describe antenna gain for antennas that operate under 1GHz (1000Mhz).

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u

EIRP (Effect Isotropic Radiated Power): effective power found in the main lobe of transmitter antenna. u EIRP = PtGt u In dB, EIRP is equal to sum of the antenna gain, Gt (in dBi) plus the power, Pt (in dBm) into that antenna. For example, a 12 dBi gain antenna fed directly with 15 dBm of power has an Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) of: 12 dBi + 15dBm = 27 dBm (500 mW).

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10m

W

u

Note: effect of frequency f: 900 Mhz vs 5 Ghz. u Either the receiver must have greater sensitivity or the sender must pour 44W of power, even for 10m cell radius!

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SIR:

u u

SIR is much better with higher path loss exponent ( = 5)! Higher path loss, smaller cells => lower interference, higher SIR

Source: J. Andrews et al book

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u u u

Frequencies < 1 GHz are often referred to as beachfront spectrum. Why? 1. High frequency RF electronics have traditionally been harder to design and manufacture, and hence more expensive. [less so nowadays] 2. Pathloss increases ~ O(fc2) u A signal at 3.5 GHz (one of WiMAXs candidate frequencies) will be received with about 20 times less power than at 800 MHz (a popular cellular frequency). u Effective path loss exponent also increases at higher frequencies, due to increased absorption and attenuation of high frequency signals Tradeoff: u Bandwidth at higher carrier frequencies is more plentiful and less expensive. u Does not support large transmission ranges. u (also increases problems for mobility/Doppler effects etc) WIMAX Choice: u Pick any two out of three: high data rate, high range, low cost.

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Ray Tracing

u

Diffraction: signal bends around an object in its path to the receiver: u Diffraction Path loss exceeding 100 dB Error of the ray tracing approximation is smallest when the receiver is many wavelengths from the nearest scatterer, and all the scatterers are large relative to a wavelength and fairly smooth. u Good match w/ empirical data in rural areas, along city streets (Tx/Rx close to ground), LAN with adjusted diffraction coefficients

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s s l

Reflection/Refraction: large objects (>> )

Scattering: small objects, rough surfaces (< ): foilage, lamposts, street signs

u u u

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u

The electric field flips in sign canceling the LOS field, and hence the path loss is O(d-4) rather than O(d-2). The frequency effect disappears! u Similar phenomenon with antenna arrays. Near-field, far-field detail explored in next slide: u Used for cell-design

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u u

d < ht: constructive i/f ht < d < dc: constructive and destructive i/f (multipath fading upto critical distance) dc < d: only destructive interference

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Design the cell size to be < critical distance to get O(d-2) power decay in cell and O(d-4) outside! Cell radii are typically much smaller than critical distance

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Source: A. Goldsmith book

u u

Ground and 1-3 wall reflections Falloff with distance squared (d2)! u Dominance of the multipath rays which decay as d2, u over the combination of the LOS and ground-reflected rays (the two-ray model), which decays as d4. Empirical studies: d, where lies anywhere between two and six

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u u

Used when path loss dominated by reflections. Most important parameter is the path loss exponent , determined empirically.

d0 Pr = Pt K , d

u

2 8

Cell design impact: If the radius of a cell is reduced by half when the propagation path loss exponent is 4, the transmit power level of a base station is reduced by 12dB (=10 log 16 dB). u Costs: More base stations, frequent handoffs

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Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

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Empirical Models

u

Okumura model u Empirically based (site/freq specific) u Awkward (uses graphs) Hata model u Analytical approximation to Okumura model Cost 136 Model: u Extends Hata model to higher frequency (2 GHz) Walfish/Bertoni: u Cost 136 extension to include diffraction from rooftops

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u

Empirical models include effects of path loss, shadowing and multipath. u Multipath effects are averaged over several wavelengths: local mean attenuation (LMA) u Empirical path loss for a given environment is the average of LMA at a distance d over all measurements Okamura: based upon Tokyo measurements. 1-100 lm, 150-1500MHz, base station heights (30-100m), median attenuation over free-space-loss, 10-14dB standard deviation.

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Indoor Models

u u u u

900 MHz: 10-20dB attenuation for 1-floor, 6-10dB/floor for next few floors (and frequency dependent) Partition loss each time depending upton material (see table) Outdoor-to-indoor: building penetration loss (8-20 dB), decreases by 1.4dB/floor for higher floors. (reduced clutter) Windows: 6dB less loss than walls (if not lead lined)

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u u u

Path loss models simplify Maxwells equations Models vary in complexity and accuracy Power falloff with distance is proportional to d2 in free space, d4 in two path model General ray tracing computationally complex Empirical models used in 2G/3G/Wimax simulations Main characteristics of path loss captured in simple model Pr=PtK[d0/d]

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u u u

Shadowing

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Log-Normal Shadowing

u

Assumption: shadowing is dominated by the attenuation from blocking objects. Attenuation of for depth d: s(d) = ed , (: attenuation constant). Many objects: s(dt) = e d i = edt , dt = di is the sum of the random object depths

u

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dBm

Need to improve receiver sensitivity (i.e. reduce Pmin) for better coverage.

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u

SINR: Without shadowing ( = 0), BPSK works 100%, 16QAM fails all the time. With shadowing ( s= 6dB): BPSK: 16 QAM

u u

u u u

75% of users can use BPSK modulation and hence get a PHY data rate of 10 MHz 1 bit/symbol 1/2 = 5 Mbps Less than 1% of users can reliably use 16QAM (4 bits/symbol) for a more desirable data rate of 20 Mbps. Interestingly for BPSK, w/o shadowing, we had 100%; and 16QAM: 0%!

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u u u

u u

Wireless communication typically happens at very high carrier frequency. (eg. fc = 900 MHz or 1.9 GHz for cellular) Multipath fading due to constructive and destructive interference of the transmitted waves. Channel varies when mobile moves a distance of the order of the carrier wavelength. This is about 0.3 m for 900 Mhz cellular. For vehicular speeds, this translates to channel variation of the order of 100 Hz. Primary driver behind wireless communication system design.

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u

Path loss, shadowing => average signal power loss u Fading around this average. u Subtract out average => fading modeled as a zero-mean random process Narrowband Fading channel: Each symbol is long in time u The channel h(t) is assumed to be uncorrelated across symbols => single tap in time domain. Fading w/ many scatterers: Central Limit Theorem u In-phase (cosine) and quadrature (sine) components of the snapshot r(0), denoted as rI (0) and rQ(0) are independent Gaussian random variables.

u

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Power

multi-path propagation

Path Delay

path-2

path-1

path-3 Base Station (BS) Channel Impulse Response: Channel amplitude |h| correlated at delays . Each tap value @ kTs Rayleigh distributed (actually the sum of several sub-paths)

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u u u u u

The impulse response of the channel is correlated in the time-domain (sum of echoes) u Manifests as a power-delay profile, dispersion in channel autocorrelation function A( ) Equivalent to selectivity or deep fades in the frequency domain Delay spread: ~ 50ns (indoor) 1 s (outdoor/cellular). Coherence Bandwidth: Bc = 500kHz (outdoor/cellular) 20MHz (indoor) Implications: High data rate: symbol smears onto the adjacent ones (ISI).

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u

u u u

The doppler power spectrum shows dispersion/flatness ~ doppler spread (100-200 Hz for vehicular speeds) u Equivalent to selectivity or deep fades in the time domain correlation envelope. u Each envelope point in time-domain is drawn from Rayleigh distribution. But because of Doppler, it is not IID, but correlated for a time period ~ Tc (correlation time). Doppler Spread: Ds ~ 100 Hz (vehicular speeds @ 1GHz) Coherence Time: Tc = 2.5-5ms. Implications: A deep fade on a tone can persist for 2.5-5 ms! Closed-loop estimation is valid only for 2.5-5 ms.

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u u

#1: At each tap, channel gain |h| is a Rayleigh distributed r.v.. The random process is not IID. #2: Response spreads out in the time-domain ( ), leading to inter-symbol interference and deep fades in the frequency domain: frequency-selectivity caused by multi-path fading #3: Response completely vanish (deep fade) for certain values of t: Time-selectivity caused by doppler effects (frequency-domain dispersion/spreading)

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Dispersion-Selectivity Duality

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Fading: Jargon

u u

Flat fading: no multipath ISI effects. u Eg: narrowband, indoors Frequency-selective fading: multipath ISI effects. u Eg: broadband, outdoor. Slow fading: no doppler effects. u Eg: indoor Wifi home networking Fast Fading: doppler effects, time-selective channel u Eg: cellular, vehicular Broadband cellular + vehicular => Fast + frequency-selective

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X = [X1, , Xn] is Normal random vector ||X|| is Rayleigh { eg: magnitude of a complex gaussian channel X1 + jX2 } ||X||2 is Chi-Squared w/ n-degrees of freedom When n = 2, chi-squared becomes exponential. {eg: power in complex gaussian channel: sum of squares}

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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Ricean used when there is a dominant LOS path. K parameter: strength of LOS to non-LOS. K = 0 => Rayleigh Nakagami-m distribution can in many cases be used in tractable analysis of fading channel performance. More general than Rayleigh and Ricean.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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Lz: Level Crossing Rate

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u u

A few major multipaths, and lots of local scatterers => each channel sample tap can be modeled as Rayleigh u A tap period generally shorter than a symbol time. Correlation between tapped values.

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u u

Tx: a sinusoid: cos 2 ft Electric Field: source antenna gain ( s) Product of antenna gains ( )

Linearity is a good assumption, but time-invariance lost when Tx, Rx or environment in motion

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Phase difference ( ): depends upon f & r u Constructive or destructive interference u Peak-to-valley: coherence distance: u Delay spread:

u

Coherence bandwidth: u I/f pattern changes if frequency changes on the order of coherence bandwidth. Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

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Symbol Time Symbol Time

u u u

Higher bandwidth => higher symbol rate, and smaller time per-symbol Lower symbol rate, more time, energy per-symbol If the delay spread is longer than the symbol-duration, symbols will smear onto adjacent symbols and cause symbol errors

Power

Path Delay

Delay spread ~1 s

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

No Symbol Error! (~kbps) (energy is collected over the full symbol period for detection)

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Effective channel depends on both physical environment and bandwidth! Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 65

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u

Even though many paths with different delays exist (corresponding to finer-scale bumps in h(t)) Smaller bandwidth => fewer channel taps (remember Nyquist?) The receiver will simply not sample several multipaths, and interpolate what it does sample => smoother envelope h(t) u The power in these multipaths cannot be combined! In CDMA Rake (Equalization) Receiver, the power on multipath taps is received (rake fingers), gain adjusted and combined. u Similar to bandpass vs matched filtering (see next slide) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

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Simple Bandpass (low bandwidth) Filter: excludes noise, but misses some signal power in other mpath taps

Matched Filter: includes more signal power, weighted according to size => maximal noise rejection & signal power aggregation!

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u u

(Fixed phase & frequency shifts)

Doppler frequency shift of fv/c due to relative motion u This is no longer LTI unlike wired channels u We have to make LTI approximations assuming smalltime-scales only (t small, vt 0) u If time-varying attenuation in denominator ignored (vt 0), we can use the transfer function H(f) as earlier, but with doppler adjustment of -fv/c

u

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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Doppler spread:

u u

Note: opposite sign for doppler shift for the two waves Effect is roughly like the product of two sinusoids

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5ms

Fast oscillations of the order of GHz u Slow envelope oscillations order of 50 Hz => peak-to-zero every 5 ms u A.k.a. Channel coherence time (Tc) = c/4fv Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

u

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v= 60 km/hr, fc = 900 MHz: Direct path has Doppler shift of roughly -50 Hz = -fv/c Reflected path has shift of +50 Hz Doppler spread = 100 Hz

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u

Space-time channel models: u Mean/RMS angular spreads (similar to multipath delay spread) u The time-varying impulse response model can be extended to incorporate AOA (angle-of-arrival) for the array. u A( ): average received signal power as a function of AoA . u Needs appropriate linear transformation to achieve full MIMO gains.

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u

: RMS angular spread of a channel u Refers to the statistical distribution of the angle of the arriving energy. Large RMS => channel energy is coming in from many directions, u Lot of local scattering, and this results in more statistical diversity in the channel based upon AoA Small RMS => received channel energy is more focused. u More focused energy arrival results in less statistical diversity.

RMS

The dual of angular spread is coherence distance, Dc. u As the angular spread, the coherence distance , and vice versa. u A coherence distance of d means that any physical positions separated by d have an essentially uncorrelated received signal amplitude and phase. freq => u An approximate rule of thumb is better angular diversity!

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Mathematical Models

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Physical Models

u

where ai(t) and i(t) are the gain and delay of path i.

u

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u

Coherence time Tc depends on carrier frequency and vehicular speed, of the order of milliseconds or more. Delay spread Td depends on distance to scatterers, of the order of nanoseconds (indoor) to microseconds (outdoor). Channel can be considered as time-invariant over a long time scale (underspread). u Transfer function & frequency domain methods can still be applied to this approximately LTI model

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Baseband Equivalence:

u

Easier to analyze complex numbers like (ejwt), even though all baseband/passband are real signals involving sines and cosines.

Passband signal = baseband signal (u(t)) multiplying a complex carrier (ejwt ) signal, and extracting the real portion u(t): complex envelope or complex lowpass equivalent signal Quadrature concept: Cosine and Sine oscillators modulated with x(t) and -y(t) respectively (the Real and Quadrature parts of u(t))

Received Signal:

v(t) and c(t) are baseband equivalents for received and channel Shivkumar Kalyanaraman 85

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Block diagram

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u u

QAM system

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u u u

Communication at passband (allocated spectrum). Processing in baseband: modulation, coding etc. Upconvert/Downconvert. sb contains same information as s: Fourier transform hermitian around 0 (rotation). If only one of the side bands are transmitted, the passband has half the power as the baseband equivalent

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u

The frequency response of the system is shifted from the passband to the baseband.

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Sampling Interpretation

u

Due to the decay of the sinc function, the ith path contributes most significantly to the lth tap if its delay falls in the window [l/W 1/(2W), l/W +1/(2W)].

where:

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Sampled baseband-equivalent channel model:

and the sum is over all paths that fall in the delay bin

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u u u u

Let s(t) denote the input signal with equivalent lowpass signal u(t). Let h(t) denote the bandpass channel impulse response with equivalent lowpass channel impulse response hl(t) The transmitted signal s(t) and channel impulse response h(t) are both real, so the channel output r(t) = s(t) h(t) is also real, with frequency response R(f) = H(f)S(f) R(f) will also be a bandpass signal w/ complex lowpass representation:

Summary: Equivalent lowpass models for s(t), h(t) and r(t) isolates the carrier terms (fc) from the analysis. Sampled version allows discrete-time processing.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u

Fading occurs when there is destructive interference of the multipaths that contribute to a tap.

Delay spread Coherence bandwidth single tap, flat fading multiple taps, frequency selective

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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Time-varying delays

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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Doppler Spread

u

where i is the angle the direction of motion makes with the i th path.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u u u

u u

Discrete symbol x[m] is the mth sample of the transmitted signal; there are W samples per second. Continuous time signal x(t), 1 s W discrete symbols Each discrete symbol is a complex number; u It represents one (complex) dimension or degree of freedom. u Bandlimited x(t) has W degrees of freedom per second. u Signal space of complex continuous time signals of duration T which have most of their energy within the frequency band [W/2,W/2] has dimension approximately WT. Continuous time signal with bandwidth W can be represented by W complex dimensions per second. Degrees of freedom of the channel to be the dimension of the received signal space of y[m]

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Statistical Models

u

Design and performance analysis based on statistical ensemble of channels rather than specific physical channel.

Complex circular symmetric Gaussian . Squared magnitude is exponentially distributed. u Rician model: 1 line-of-sight plus scattered paths

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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u

Specified by autocorrelation function and power spectral density of fading process. Example: Clarkes (or Jakes) model.

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u

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Types of Channels

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Summary

u

We have understood both qualitatively and quantitatively the concepts of path loss, shadowing, fading (multi-path, doppler), and some of their design impacts. We have understood how time and frequency selectivity of wireless channels depend on key physical parameters. We have come up with linear, LTI and statistical channel models useful for analysis and design.

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