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Associate Degree ( Commerce ) English


(Course Code ENG-102)

Presentation Topic

Phrase & Clause And Sentence Structure

Presented By

Hina Saleem 10012454-026

Saima Batool 10012454-026

W hat is Sentence
A group of words that make complete sense is called a Sentence. A sentence must always begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop (.)

What is Sentence Structure

Sentence Structure is the order of elements in a sentence. A sentence must have a subject and predicate.

How many types of Structural Sentences?

There are Four Types of Structural Sentences.

Simple Sentence. Compound Sentence. Complex Sentence. Compound-Complex. (or Double Sentence).

Simple Sentence
A simple sentence contains a subject and verb. It expresses a single complete thought. A simple sentence is a single independent clause.

live in San Francisco.

Compound Sentence
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses that are joined together. Conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, and yet, so) join these independent clauses. The conjunction used can impact the meaning of the sentence.

Compound Sentence
We went to San Juan , and most of us danced all night .

Subjec t

went to San Juan ,


Coordinating Conjunction and most of us danced all night .



Compound Sentence
You can make a compound sentence by joining two logically related independent clauses by using

-a semicolon -a coordinating conjunction - a transition

Using a Semicolon
I love living in the city . There are so many things to do .

I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do .

Using a Coordinating Conjunction

He couldnt watch the show, he decided to tape it. He couldnt watch the show he decided to tape it. , so

Coordinating Conjunctions
Logical Addition Contrast Relationship Choice Cause Result Coordinating And , yet But Conjunction Or , nor For So

Another way to remember these is

For And Nor But Or Yet So


Do NOT use a comma every time you use the words and , or , but , nor , for , so , yet . Use a comma only when the coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses.
The necklace was beautiful but expensive.

No comma - not Independent clause an independent clause

sing a Transition
I love Lahore traffic. ; however, I hate the

Independent Clause Independent Clause

Complex Sentence
A complex sentence consists of one Main Clause/an independent clause joined by one or more Subordinate/dependent clauses.

Complex Sentence
John cannot set up his typewriter Independent Clause because the wall has no outlet.

Subordinating Conjunction

Dependent Clause

Complex Sentence
A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause.

She will go to school in the city

Independent Clause Independent Clause until she finds a job.

Dependent Clause Subordinating Conjunction

Complex Sentence
Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence.
When I first moved to the city ,

Use a comma if the dependent clause Subordinating Conjunction is the first part of the sentence .
I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets .

Independent Clause

Compound-Complex Sentence
A compound-complex sentence is a sentence that has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. The same subordinating conjunctions are used to introduce the dependent clauses. The same coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) are used for joining the independent clauses.

Compound-Complex Sentence

Since we wanted to have fun , my boyfriend and I went to San Juan yesterday , and we danced all night .

Subordina ting Conjuncti Since we wanted to have fun , on my boyfriend and I went to San Juan ,

Subje ct Subordina
ting Conjuncti on

Predic ate

and we danced all night .

Thank you for attending!