You are on page 1of 50

Introduction to Materials Management

Chapter 1

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Wealth
What is it? Where does it come from? Adding value
Designing the process Managing the process

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Wealth
Natural resources Transformation Conversion Managing the process Services

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Operating Environment
Government
regulations safety

Economy
effects demand shortages and surpluses

Competition is now global


reduced costs of transportation communications, reduced costs and increased speed
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Operating Environment continued


Customers demand
Lower prices Improved quality Reduced lead time Improved pre-sale and after-sale service Product and volume flexibility

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Quality
Order Qualifiers:
customer requirements for price, quality, delivery, etc

Order Winners:
those characteristics that persuade customers to select a product or service

Todays order winners are tomorrows order qualifiers


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Manufacturing Strategy

Figure 1.1 Manufacturing strategy and lead time


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Engineer-to-Order
Manufacturer does not start until the order is received Custom designs Unique products Long lead time Inventory purchased after order is received
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Make-to-Order
Manufacturer does not start until the order is received Often uses standard components Little design time Lead time is reduced Inventory held as raw materials
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Assemble-to-Order
Manufacturer inventories standard components No design time required Assembly only required Shorter lead time Inventory held as standard components
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Make-to-Stock
Manufacturer produces the goods in anticipation of customer demand Little customer involvement with design

Shortest lead time Inventory held as finished goods


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

The Supply Chain Concept

Figure 1.2 Supply-production-distribution system


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

The Supply Chain Concept


Includes all activities and processes to supply a product or service to the customer Links many companies Has a number of supplier/customer relationships May contain intermediaries such as: wholesalers, warehouses and retailers
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Historical Perspective
In the past there were well defined and rigid boundaries between organizations JIT viewed suppliers as partners
mutual analysis for cost reduction mutual product design greatly reduced inventory improved communications (internet, EDI)
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Growth of Supply Chain Concept


Integrated systems (ERP) and the sharing of information Global competition and supply Flexible designs - reduced product life cycles JIT approach to interorganizational relations Subcontracting or outsourcing work
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Current Supply Chain Concept


Manage the flow of materials Share information through the internet Transfer funds electronically Recover, recycle or reuse materials

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Conflicts in Traditional Systems


Company main objectives
1. Best customer service 2. Lowest production costs 3. Lowest inventory investment 4. Lowest distribution costs

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Conflicts in Traditional Systems

Figure 1.3 Conflicting Objectives


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Conflicts in Traditional Systems


Objective Implications Customer Service Production Disruptions Inventories Marketing High Revenue High Many High Production Low Cost Low Few High Finance Cash Flow Low Few Low

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Materials Management
Planning and controlling the flow of materials Objectives:
Maximize the use of the firms resources Provide the required level of customer service

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Company Objectives
Income = Revenue - Expense
Need to increase income with:
Best customer service Lowest production costs Lowest inventory investment Lowest distribution costs
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Materials Management and Profits


Direct labor Direct material
Varies with volume sold

Overhead
Does not vary with volume sold

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Materials Management and Profits (continued)


Dollars Sales Revenue Cost of Goods Sold
Direct Material Direct Labour Overhead $500,000 $200,000 $200,000

% of Sales $1,000,000 10
50 20 20

Total Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

$900,000 $100,000

90 10

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Materials Management and Profits (continued)


Reduce Materials by 10% and Labor by 5% % of Sales Dollars Sales Revenue $1,000,000 10 Cost of Goods Sold
Direct Material Direct Labour Overhead $450,000 $190,000 $200,000 45 19 20

Total Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit Profit has increased 60%
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

$840,000 $160,000

84 16

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Materials Management and Profits (continued)


To get the same result (+ 60% profit) through Sales % of Sales Dollars Sales Revenue $1,200,000 10 Cost of Goods Sold
Direct Material Direct Labour Overhead $600,000 $240,000 $200,000 50 20 20

Total Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit Sales must increase by 20%
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

$1,040,000 $160,000

87 13

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Manufacturing Planning and Control


Planning and controlling the flow of materials through the manufacturing process through:
Production Planning Implementation and Control Inventory Management

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Production Planning
To meet the demands of the marketplace Establish priorities Ensure capacity Activities
Forecasting Master Planning Materials Requirements Planning Capacity Planning
2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

Implementation and Control


Putting into action and achieving the plans
(made by production planning)

Production Activity Control


Shop Floor Control

Purchasing

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Inventory Management
To support production (Raw Materials) or as a result of production (Finished Goods) Provide a buffer against the differences in demand rates and production rates How much is enough?
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Inventory Turns
Inventory Turns Ratio = Annual Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory in Dollars Example: If the annual cost of goods sold is $1 million dollars and the average inventory is $500,000, then: Inventory Turns = $1,000,000 = 2 $500,000
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Inventory Turns Example Problem


a. What will be the Inventory Turns Ratio if the annual C of GS is $24 million and the average inventory is $6 million? b. What would be the reduction in inventory if turns were increased to 12 times per year? c. If the cost of carrying inventory is 25% of the average inventory what will the annual savings be?
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Inventory Turns Example Problem


a. Inventory Turns = annual C of G S average inventory

= $24,000,000 $6,000,000 = 4 turns per year


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Inventory Turns Example Problem (continued)


b. Average Inventory = annual C of G S inventory turns = $24,000,000 12 =$2,000,000 Inventory Reduction = $6,000,000 - $2,000,000
= $4,000,000
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Inventory Turns Example Problem (continued)


c. Reduction in Inventory = $4,000,000 Annual Savings = $4,000,000 x .25 = $1,000,000

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Inputs to the Manufacturing Planning and Control System


1. Product description 2. Process specifications 3. Time needed 4. Available facilities 5. Quantity required

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Product Description
Engineering Drawings
Specifications

Bill of Material
Components used to make the product Sub-assemblies at stages of production

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Process Specifications
Recorded on a Route Sheet Describe how the product is made
Operations required to make the product Sequence of operations Equipment and accessories required Standard time to perform each operation

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Time Needed to Perform Operations


Expressed as Standard Time
An average operator, working at a normal pace Obtained from the Routing File

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Available Facilities
What equipment is available What labor is available

Obtained from the Work Center File

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Quantities Required
Information from
Forecasts Customer Orders Production Planning

Expressed in the Shop Order

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Physical Supply / Distribution


All the activities involved in moving goods
from the supplier to the beginning of the production process from the end of the process to the customer

Transportation Warehousing Order Entry


Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

Distribution Inventory Packaging Materials Handling


2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Supply Chain Metrics


Metric - a verifiable measure Used to:
communicate expectations identify problems direct action motivate people

Must be timely
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Challenges
1. Customers are never satisfied 2. Supply chains are large 3. Product life cycles are getting shorter 4. Lots of data 5. Narrow profit margins 6. Increasing number of alternatives
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Metrics
Performance measures
Quantified and objective Contain two parameters
e.g. Orders per day, Sales per person

Performance standards
Sets the goals Establishes controls
Performance standards sets the goal. Performance measure say how close you came.
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Metrics

Strategy Strategic Customer

Focus

Metrics

Operational Standard

Figure 1.4 Metrics context

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Metrics Program
1. Establish company goals and objectives 2. Define performance 3. State the measurement 4. Set performance standards 5. Educate the users 6. Apply consistently
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Materials Management A Balancing Act


Inventory
Transportation

Customer Service

Cost of the Service

Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed.

2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 1 Summary
Manufacturing creates wealth Must make the best use of
labor, materials and capital

Need to plan the flow of materials


into, through and out of production

Three elements in a material flow system:


supply, manufacturing and distribution
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 1 Summary (continued)


Need to balance
Customer service with the cost of supplying the service

There are three basic ways to organize manufacturing processes:


flow, intermittent and project determined by the: item, production rate and range of products
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 1 Summary (continued)


Each manufacturing system requires the planning of materials Need the right material at the right place at the right time Metrics will help with control and to meet the goals of the company
Arnold, Chapman, & Clive: Intro Materials Management, 6th ed. 2008 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.