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Base Isolation

Conventional Construction Practice assumes Fixed Base Structures


 The Dynamic Characteristics of Fixed Base Structures are determined by the general characteristics of the structural system  The Designer can only slightly adjust those Dynamic Characteristics  As a matter of fact, most common Building Structures have unfavorable Dynamic Characteristics that result in increased Seismic Response

Earthquake Performance of Fixed Base Structures


 Conventional Fixed Base Structures can not be realistically designed to remain elastic in large seismic events (more so in regions of high seismicity)  Common practice is to design them so that they experience damage in a controlled manner and have large inelastic displacements potential

Unconventional Earthquake Protective Systems


Earthquake Protective Systems

Passive Protective Systems

Hybrid Protective Systems

Active Protective Systems

Tuned Mass Damper

Active Isolation

Active Mass Damping

Energy Dissipation

Semi-Active Isolation

Active Bracing

Base Isolation

Semi-Active Mass Damping

Adaptive Control

Base Isolation is the most common System

The Concept of Base Isolation


Fixed Base

Significantly Increase the Period of the Structure and the Damping so that the Response is Significantly Reduced Period Base Isolated

Base Isolation in Buildings

Original Structure

Isolated Structure

Isolation at foundation level

Base Isolation in Buildings

Isolator Components Between the Foundation and Superstructure

An Isolation Interface is formed

Base Isolation in Buildings

Base Isolation in Buildings

How exactly does Base Isolation Work?


Isolators have large Most types potential deformationof Isolators exhibit nonlinear drift on allowing for large behavior the Isolation Interface

Lengthening of the Structures Period and increased Damping that result in a large scale decrease of the Seismic Response

Force Displacement Relationship at the Isolation Interface

actual hysteretic behavior

viscoelastic idealization

Response of Base Isolated Buildings versus Fixed Base Response

Reduced Superstructure Deformations for Base Isolated Structure

Drift on Isolation Interface

Most Common Types of Isolation Components (Isolators)


Isolation Devices
Elastomeric Isolators Sliding Isolators Resilient Friction System Friction Pendulum System

Natural Rubber Bearings Low-Damping Rubber Bearings Lead-Plug Bearings High-Damping Rubber Bearings

Elastomeric Isolators Lead Core Rubber Bearings

Sliding Isolators Friction Pendulum System

Superstructure

Foundation

Friction Pendulum System

Oakland City Hall


 First high-rise government office building in the United States  Tallest Building on the West Coast at the time of its construction in 1914 324 feet tall  Riveted Steel Frame with infill masonry walls of brick, granite and terracotta  Continuous Reinforced Concrete Mat foundation

Oakland City Hall


 Building was severely damaged during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake  Building is listed on the historic register Retrofit had to preserve the interior architecture and the historic fabric of the building  Both conventional fixed-base and base isolation retrofit concepts were studied  The most economical and effective method was determined to be base isolation

Oakland City Hall


Earthquake Response

Isolation System:
 111 rubber isolation bearings  36 of them with lead cores

Fixed Base

Base Isolated

Oakland City Hall


Critical Construction Issues:
 Temporary lateral bracing during construction period to safeguard against possible earthquake occurrence  Symmetric work sequence was important to reduce the possibility of torsional response in the event of an earthquake  Vertical column displacement during jacking was limited to around 0.10 inches to prevent damage to superstructure finishes

San Francisco City Hall


 Built in 1915  Today recognized as one of the most notable examples of classical architecture in the U.S.  Nearly 300 feet tall  Steel Frame with concrete slabs  Spread interior footings Strip perimeter foundation

San Francisco City Hall




The original design of the building incorporates a soft story approach at the main floor, intended to dissipate energy This alongside other discontinuities in the structural system make the dynamic characteristics of the building unfavorable The Building was severely damaged during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

San Francisco City Hall

Four Retrofit Strategies were considered


Base Isolation Fixed Base / Concrete Shear Walls Fixed Base / Steel Braced Frames Fixed Base / Steel Moment Frames Flexible Story

San Francisco City Hall

San Francisco City Hall

San Francisco City Hall


 Based on the results of the analysis, the Base Isolation Scheme was selected as best meeting the retrofit objectives and providing the most favorable performance for the least relative cost
Base Isolation is considered a particularly effective strategy when applied to massive (and rather stiff) structures