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Energy for Sustainability

Randolph & Masters, 2008

Chapter 8: Green Buildings –


from Whole Building to Whole Community Energy
Evolution of building energy in codes, ratings, practice
1960s-70s “Envelope”  Heating operating energy

1980s “Envelope, Infiltration, HVAC” 


Heating + AC operating energy

1990s-2000s “Whole Building” 


Heating + AC + appliances +
lighting operating energy

2000s+ “Whole Building Life-Cycle” 


Heating + AC + appliances + lighting
operating energy + environmental/health
impacts + life-cycle embodied energy

2010s+ “Whole Community” 


All of above + on-site generation,
site/neighborhood design, and
regional connectivity
Codes, the Market, and Guidelines are
all driven by Technology

Energy
Use in
Building,
Btu/ft2-yr

better

Technology
Building energy Codes are not as
efficient as the best Technology

Energy
Use in
Building,
Btu/ft2-yr

better

Technology Codes
But the average Market building is
more efficient than code

Energy
Use in
Building,
Btu/ft2-yr

better

Technology Market Codes


…and building energy Guidelines, like LEED, are
better than the average Market but not as good as
the best Technology

Energy
Use in
Building,
Btu/ft2-yr

better

Technology Guidelines Market Codes


Codes, the Market, and Guidelines are
all driven by Technology

Energy
Use in
Building,
Btu/ft2-yr

better

Technology
…and Building Technologies improve
over time

Energy
1970s
Use in
Building,
1980s
Btu/ft2-yr

1990s

2000s

better

Technology
Building Guidelines respond to Technology

1970s
Energy
1970s 1980s
Use in
Building,
1980s 1990s
Btu/ft2-yr

1990s 2000s

2000s

better

Technology Guidelines
…but there is a lag time
Lag time,
Technology
to Guideline
1970s
Energy
1970s 1980s
Use in
Building,
1980s 1990s
Btu/ft2-yr

1990s 2000s

2000s

better

Technology Guidelines
Technology and Guidelines affect the
average building on the Market
1970s

1970s 1980s

Energy
1970s 1980s 1990s
Use in
Building,
1980s 1990s 2000s
Btu/ft2-yr

1990s 2000s

2000s

better

Technology Guidelines Market


….but there is an additional lag time
Lag time,
Technology 1970s
to Market
1970s 1980s

Energy
1970s 1980s 1990s
Use in
Building,
1980s 1990s 2000s
Btu/ft2-yr

1990s 2000s

2000s

better

Technology Guidelines Market


Ultimately, Building Codes respond to
the Market
1970s
1970s 1980s

1970s 1980s 1990s


Energy
1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s
Use in
Building,
1980s 1990s 2000s
Btu/ft2-yr

1990s 2000s

2000s

better

Technology Guidelines Market Codes


…but this too has additional lag time
1970s
Lag time,
Technology 1970s 1980s
to Codes
1970s 1980s 1990s
Energy
1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s
Use in
Building,
1980s 1990s 2000s
Btu/ft2-yr

1990s 2000s

2000s

better

Technology Guidelines Market Codes


The Virtuous Cycle in Building Efficiency:
Advances in technological innovation drive upgrades in “green” rating systems
which enhance market penetration, all of which lead to improved codes which
further stimulate markets and innovation
70

Lag time from new technology


60 To inclusion in Codes & Standards

50
Energy/
Environment
Impact 40 Technology
Indicator, Ratings
e.g., 30 Market
Btu/ft -y
2
Codes
CO2/ft2-y 20
(lower the better)
10

0
1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s
UK Building Efficiency Standards
have improved over time
Improvements in Model Codes in US
from 1983 to 2003 for heating
Improvements in Model Codes in US
from 1983 to 2003 for cooling
…for both heating and cooling
Where are we today?
 Most codes and standards have improved and
reflect: “Envelope, Infiltration, HVAC”

 “Envelope” in state and local building codes

 “HVAC” in federal and state equipment standards


State energy building codes, 2005
Energy Codes, 2007
Where are we moving today?
“Whole Building” into ratings and codes: (Heating + AC +
appliances + lighting)

 ENERGY STAR 2006


 EPA started the ENERGY STAR program in 1992 to certify

and label products that exceed the standards by 10%-15%


or more.

 California Title 24 2005


 LEED-NC 2.2 2005
 AIA High Performance Building initiative
Significant efficiency improvements
 Windows
 Cool Roofs
 HVAC:
 high efficiency gas furnace
 SEER 13 standard for central AC
 geothermal heat pumps

 Lighting: CF, LED


 Appliances: refrigerators, 20 others
Appliance Efficiency driven by state
and federal standards
The Great Story of Refrigerator Efficiency…
Since 1975, 25% bigger, 1/3 the energy, 1/3 the cost
New United States Refrigerator Use v. Time
and Retail Prices
2,000 25

1,800

1,600 20

Refrigerator volume (cubic feet)


Average Energy Use or Price

1,400
$ 1,270
Refrigerator
1,200 Size (cubic ft) 15

1,000

800 10

600
Energy Use per Unit
(kWh/Year)
400 Refrigerator Price $ 462 5
in 1983 $
200

0 0
1947 1952 1957 1962 1967 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002
Source: Art Rosenfeld, David Goldstein
Better Consumer Information:
Appliance and Equipment Labeling
Lighting
Lighting Efficiency and Quality
 Lighting efficacy = lumens/watt (lm/w)
 where lumen = measure of luminous flux or brightness
 1 lumen/ft2 = 1 foot-candle

 CRI = Color Rendering Index, 0-100


 Low-CRI = 10-69
 Med-CRI = 70-79
 High-CRI = 80-89
 Very High-CRI = 90-100
Efficacy, Life, CRI, and Cost
Lighting Use, 2001
CRI needs

Low-CRI = 10-69
Med-CRI = 70-79
High-CRI = 80-89
Very High-CRI = 90-100
Toward LED Lighting?
California Title 24 Code
Title 24 Building Envelope, HVAC
EPA
ENERGY
STAR Homes
2005 Version:
“Envelope,
Infiltration, HVAC”

2006 Version:
“Whole
Building”
LEED-H (Homes): “Whole Building”
Points
 Location and Linkages 10
 Sustainable Sites 14
 Water Efficiency 12
 Indoor Air Quality 14
 Materials and Resources 24
 Energy and Atmosphere 29
1 ENERGY STAR Home Req+16
2 Insulation Req+1
3 Air Infiltration Req+3
4 Windows Req+3
5 Duct Tightness Req+3
6 Space Heating and Cooling HVAC Req+4
7 Water Heating 3+3
8 Lighting Energy Efficient 1+1
9 Appliances 2+1
10 Renewable Electric Generation System 6
11 Non-HCFC Refrigerant 1
 Homeowner Awareness 1
 Innovation and Design Process 4
 Project Maximum Points: 108

Certified 30-49 pts; Silver 50-69 pts; Gold 70-89 pts; Platinum 90-108 pts
Where are we headed?
 “Whole Building Life Cycle”: 2010?
 Heating + AC + appliances + lighting operating
energy + environmental/health impacts + life-
cycle embodied energy (“cradle-to-grave”)

 “Whole Communities”: 2010s?


 All of above + on-site energy generation,
site/neighborhood design, and regional
connectivity
Embodied Energy
Life-cycle Building Materials
Energy to produce wood building
products
Embodied energy various building
components and materials
Forest Product carbon emissions,
displacement, substitution
LEED-H Homes: “Whole Building Life Cycle”
Points
 Location and Linkages 10
 Sustainable Sites 14
 Water Efficiency 12
 Indoor Air Quality 14
1 ENERGY STAR with Indoor Air Quality Package (IAP) 10
2 Combustion Venting Req
3 Humidity Control 1
4 Outdoor Air Ventilation Req+3
5 Local Exhaust Req+2
6 Supply Air Distribution Req+2
7 Supply Air Filtering Req+3
8 Contaminant Control Req+2
9 Radon Protection Req+1
10 Vehicle Emissions Protection Req
 Materials and Resources 24
1 Home Size: Smaller than National Average 10
2 Material Efficient Framing Req+2
3 Local Sources Materials 3
4 Durability Plan Req+3
5 Environmentally Preferable Products Req+4
6 Waste Management Req+2
 Energy and Atmosphere 29
 Homeowner Awareness 1
 Innovation and Design Process 4
Project Maximum Points: 108

Certified 30-49 pts; Silver 50-69 pts; Gold 70-89 pts; Platinum 90-108 pts
“Whole Community Energy”
 “Whole Building Life Cycle” plus….
 … on-site energy generation
 … site design
 … neighborhood design
 … regional connectivity

 Signs of things to come


 DOE Building America program
 Net Zero Energy Homes (ZEH)
 LEED-ND Neighborhood Development
 Land Use Zoning and Form-Based Codes
“Whole Community Energy” and
Distributed Electricity
 Buildings as power plants
 Net metering
 Other local power sources: microturbines,
stationary fuel cells, regional wind farms…
 Power storage for load management
 Electric vehicles and storage: grid to vehicles,
vehicles to grid
or Plug-in cars
Rooftop Photovoltaics:
Buildings as Powerplants
Net-metering for
Grid-Connected Systems
 Feed the house when power
needed, feed the grid with excess
power
 “Bank” excess energy with the
local utility
 Meter spins backward; customer
receives full retail value for each
kWh produced
 Net excess generation (NEG)
credited monthly or annually
Zero Energy Buildings:
U.S. DOE Building America Goals

Efficiency improvements
LEED-ND – Neighborhood Development
Title # Credits Points % of total
Location Efficiency 7 28 25%
Reduced Automobile Dependence 2 to 6
Environmental Preservation 13 11%
Compact, Complete, & Connected Neighborhoods 22 42 37%
Compact Development 1 to 5
Transit-Oriented Compactness 1
Diversity of Uses 1 to 3
Comprehensively Designed Walkable Streets 2
Superior Pedestrian Experience 1 to 2
Transit Amenities 1
Access to Nearby Communities 1
Resource Efficiency 17 25 22%
Certified Green Building 1 to 5
Energy Efficiency in Buildings 1 to 3
Heat Island Reduction 1
Infrastructure Energy Efficiency 1
On-Site Power Generation 1
On-Site Renewable Energy Sources 1
Reuse of Materials 1
Recycled Content 1
Regionally Provided Materials 1
Construction Waste Management 1
Other 2 6
TOTAL 48 114 100%