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Thermal Pollution

1hansirani.R AP/ECE
What is Thermal
ncrease in the normal temperatures of
natural waters caused by intervention
of human activities.
ddition of excess of
undesirable heat to water that makes it
harmful to man, animal or aquatic life
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a]or Causes
uclear power plants
Thermal power plants
Steel mills
Soil erosion
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uclear Power Plants
uclear power plants use water as a cooling
Cold water is drawn from nearby water body,
passed through the plant
fter the water is used, it is put back into a
water supply at 9-20
C warmer or higher than
initial temperature
Excess of heat reaching such water bodies
causes thermal pollution of water.
Jhansirani.R AP/ECE
The decrease in vegetation increases
the amount of light that hits the water,
which increases the temperature of the
Deforestation also increases erosion
$oil Erosion
Erosion makes the water muddy,
which increases the light absorbed
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Effects of thermal pollution
Thermal shock aquatic life adapted to a certain
water temperature can go into shock when the
temp is changed even 1 or 2 degrees.
Oxygen dissolved in water decreases
High temperature becomes a barrier for oxygen
penetration into deep cold waters
Toxicity of pesticides, detergents & chemicals of
effluents increases
ncreases the metabolic rate of fish, which
increases their need for oxygen
Heated water can disturb spawning and even kill
young fishes
Fish migration is affected due to formation of
various thermal zones
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Prevention of thermal pollution
Theoretically, when efficiency of any heat
engine is equal to 1.0 then it will convert
100% of heat energy to mechanical energy.
So there will be no loss of heat to the
Reduce mechanical friction in any rotating
void consuming energy more than
necessity. Burn less coal, oil or gas.
Limiting the amount of heated water
discharged into the same body of water.
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Control of thermal pollution
Following methods can be employed for
control of thermal pollution
Cooling ponds
Spray ponds
Cooling towers
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Cooling ponds
Water Irom condensers is stored in ponds
where natural evaporation cools the water which
can then be recirculated or discharged in near by
water body.
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$pray ponds:
%he water Irom condensers is received in
spray ponds. Here the water is sprayed through
nozzles where Iine droplets are Iormed. Heat
Irom these Iine droplets is dissipated to the
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Cooling towers:
Wet cooling tower
Hot water is sprayed over
baIIles. Cool air entering Irom
sides takes away the heat and
cools the water. %his cool water
can be recycled or discharged.
Large amount oI water is lost
through evaporation and in the
vicinity oI wet cooling tower
extensive Iog is Iormed which
is not good Ior environment
and causes damage to
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Cooling towers:
ry cooling tower
%he heated water
Ilows in a system oI pipes.
Air is passed over these hot
pipes with Ians. %here is no
water loss in this method but
installation and operation
cost oI dry cooling tower is
many times higher than wet
cooling tower
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yperboloid Cooling Tower
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A process where waste heat is recycled Ior
domestic and/or industrial heating purposes.
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Reduce Thermal Pollution
$ave Us
arine pollution
The discharge of waste substance
into the sea resulting in harm to living
resources, hazards to human health,
hindrance to fishery and impairment of
quality for use of sea water
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Causes of marine pollution
Rivers ,which bring pollutants Irom their drainage
Catchment area where human settlements in the
Iorm oI hotels, industries, agricultural practices
have been established
Oil drilling and shipment
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ost oI the rivers ultimately join the ocean. %he
pollutants which these rivers carry Irom their
drainage basins are Iinally poured into the sea.
These include :
$ewage sludge
Industrial eIIluents
$ynthetic detergents
$olid wastes
etals and waste heat released by industries
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n the sea the pollutants get diluted and the
organic matter is further broken down as in
river water. Still many pollutants specially the
recalcitrant ones remain unchanged or are
partially degraded causing marine pollution.
These pollutants get biomagnified and affect
fisheries and other marine life.
nother important source of marine pollution is
the leaking toxic substance , radioactive
wastes etc., which are stored in large
containers and dumped in deep sea are
considering sea to be a better disposal site
than land.
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Tankers and other shipping means
* Petroleum
* lubricant oil using industry
* Metal industry
* Paint industry
utomotive waste
Ship accidents
Off shore production
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Tankers transporting oil causes oil pollution
fter delivering the oil through sea route
empty tankers used to be filled with water
called ballast-water to maintain balance
The ballast-water containing residual oil is
released into the sea on completion of return
ow a days the oil floating on the ballast
water is removed in the newly designed load
on top tankers before ballast water is let off
Oil can spread over large area of sea,
remains dispersed causing adverse effect on
marine life
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Jhansirani.R AP/ECE
Effects of marine pollution
Oil in sea water aIIects sensitive Ilora & Iauna like
Phytoplanktons, Zooplankton
Algal species, Invertebrates
Coral reeI, Fish
Birds, ammals
Fishes show mortality because the Iish gills get
laden with oil
Oil disrupts the insulating capacity oI Ieathers.
eath occurs due to loss oI buoyancy and drowning
oI birds
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Control of Marine Pollution
. %oxic pollutants Irom industries and sewage
treatment plants should not be discharged in
coastal waters.
2. Run oII Irom non-point sources should be
prevented to reach coastal areas.
3. $ewer overIlows should be prevented by
having separate sewer and rain water pipes.
4. umping oI toxic, hazardous wastes and
sewage sludge should be banned.
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Control of Marine Pollution
. evelopmental l activities on coastal areas
should be minimized.
6. Oil and grease Irom service stations should be
processed Ior reuse.
7. Oil ballast should not be dumped into sea.
8. Ecologically sensitive coastal areas should be
protected by not allowing drilling.
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Jhansirani.R AP/ECE
Soil pollution is defined as the build-up
in soils of persistent toxic compounds,
chemicals, salts, radioactive materials,
or disease causing agents, which have
adverse effects on plant growth and
animal health.
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$ources of soil pollution
$oil is the upper layer oI the earth curst which is
Iormed by weathering oI rocks. Organic matter
in the soil makes it suitable Ior living organisms.
umping oI various types oI materials especially
domestic and industrial wastes causes soil
omestic/urban waste
Industrial waste
Agricultural practices
Radioactive pollutants
Biological agents
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Domestic waste includes
Rubbish material like:
Metallic cans
Cloth rags
Paints varnishes etc.
Leachates from dumping sites
Sewage tanks are harmful and toxic
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IndustriaI wastes :
Paper mills
Chemical industries
Textiles mills
Oil refineries
Fertilizers & Pesticides industries
Pharmaceutical industries
Coal mining
Mineral mining industries & so on
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ricuIturaI practices :
&se of fertilizers
Pesticides (DDT, HCH)
Farm waste Debris
Eroded soil containing inorganic
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#adioactive poIIution :
Explosions of nuclear dusts
Radioactive wastes from nuclear testing lab's
TypicaI exampIes of radioactive poIIution :
Radio nuclides of Th, &, K,C
Explosion of nuclear weapons
uclear reactor wastes like Ru, , Ba, La, Cs,
Sr etc.,
Rain water carries the harmful wastes into the
uclear wastes emits gamma radiations
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ioIoicaI ents
Human excreta
nimal excreta
Bird's excreta
Sewage sludge contains
* bacteria
* viruses
* intestinal worms
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Effects of soil pollution
lters the biological properties & fertility of soil
Reduces soil productivity
Plants also would not thrive in such a soil,
which would further result in soil erosion.
Disturbs human food chain
Serious effects on human life causing various
types of diseases.
Foul smell due to industrial chemicals and
gases might result in headaches, fatigue,
nausea, etc.
Contaminate groundwater resources
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ontroI of SoiI PoIIution
1 .Effluents should be properly treated before
discharging them on the soil.
2. Solid wastes should be properly collected
and disposed off by appropriate method.
3. From the wastes, recovery of useful
products should be done.
4. Ban on toxic chemicals
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. Biodegradable organic waste should be used
for generation of biogas.
6. Cattle dung should be used for methane
generation. ight soil can also be used in the
biogas plant to produce inflammable
methane gas.
7. Microbial degradation of biodegradable
substances is also one of the scientific
approaches for reducing soil pollution.
Jhansirani.R AP/ECE
Jhansirani.R AP/ECE