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Proximity sensors

Optical Through-beam

Inductive

Capacitive

Optical Retro-reflective

Reed switch

Symbols

Optical - Diffuse
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Inductive magnetic
Sensors

Connection
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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam
Target

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam

Transmitter

Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Through-beam)


Type : Through-beam
Target

Transmitter Long sensing distance: up to 30 metres with some devices Will detect all but very transparent materials Must be accurately aligned
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Receiver

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective Target

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Retro-reflective)


Type : Retro reflective

Transmitter /Receiver

Sensing distance : 1/2 to 1/3 of through-beam type Not suitable for reflective or transparent targets Target should be larger than the reflector
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Reflector (prismatic)

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse Target

Transmitter /Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse

Transmitter /Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse

Transmitter /Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse

Transmitter /Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse

Transmitter /Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse

Transmitter /Receiver

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Sensors

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Optical sensors (Diffuse)


Type : Diffuse

Transmitter /Receiver

Sensing distance: much less than reflex type, actual distance depends on colour and reflective nature of the surface Larger targets result in longer sensing distances Not suitable for dirty environments
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Inductive sensors

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Sensors

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Inductive sensors
High frequency magnetic field (300 to 800 kHz) Active surface

Resonant circuit coil

LED indicator

Connection cable

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Sensors

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Targe t

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Target

Inductive sensors

Sensor

Oscillation Amplitude

Sensor output signal

ON OFF
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Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Inductive sensors
Will detect any conductive material Quoted distances are for mild steel Sensor performance can be affected by: Temperature Target material Target dimensions

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Sensors

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Reed switch

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Sensors

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Reed switch
Glass Tube filled with nitrogen Reed contacts LED indicator

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Sensors

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Reed switch

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Sensors

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Reed switch

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Sensors

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Reed switch

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Sensors

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Reed switch

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Sensors

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Reed switch

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Sensors

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Reed switch

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Sensors

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Reed switch

24v

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Sensors

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Reed switch

24v

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Sensors

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Reed switch
Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided. If positioned in mid stroke, switching point will vary depending on direction of approach. Maximum current must be limited to avoid burning of the reed contacts.

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

Connection cable

Resonant circuit coil

High frequency magnetic field

LED Indicator

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor

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Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor


Inductive principle of operation - but only reacts to magnetic fields Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided. Solid state device - higher switching frequency - 1kHz

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor
Sensor is looking for a change in capacitance in the active field
Electrostatic field Active surface

Active electrode

Earth electrode

LED indicator

Adjusting screw

Connection cable

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor

Target

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor

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Capacitive sensor

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor
Detects any material denser than air (as long as there is enough of it) Can be adjusted for sensitivity Can be affected by dusty environments

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor

Sensor is adjusted so that it does not see the wall of the vessel.

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Sensors

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Capacitive sensor

As the level rises the fluid affects the sensor field.

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Capacitive sensor

Until the sensor switches.

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Sensors

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Sensor symbols

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Sensors

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Sensor symbols
Inductive Capacitive + 18 to 30 Volts DC. Output Optical Magnetic Ultrasonic Normally open Normally closed
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0V

Sensor symbols
Capacitive Sensor with Normally open function + 18 to 30 Volts DC. Output

0V

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Sensors

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Sensor connection

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Sensors

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Sensor connection
PNP Type Output is Positive Positive switching
24v DC

18 to 30 Volts DC

Output

0V 0v

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Sensors

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Sensor connection
NPN Type Output switches through to 0v Negative switching
Output 24v DC

18 to 30 Volts DC

0V 0v

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Sensors

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Sensor connection

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Sensors

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Sensor connection
Inductive Capacitive + 18 to 30 Volts DC. Output Optical Magnetic Ultrasonic Normally open Normally closed
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0V

Inductive sensor
Will detect any conductive material Quoted distances are for mild steel Sensor performance can be affected by: Temperature Target material Target dimensions. Oscillation Amplitude

Targe t

Sensor

Sensor ON output signal OF F


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Capacitive sensor
Detects any material denser than air. (as long as there is enough of it) Can be adjusted for sensitivity Can be affected by dusty environments

Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Sensors

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Optical sensors
Type: Through-beam Long sensing distance : up to 30 metres with some devices Will detect all but very transparent materials Must be accurately aligned

Target

Transmitter

Receiver

Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Sensors

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Optical sensors
Type: Retro-reflective Sensing distance : 1/2 to 1/3 of throughbeam type. Not suitable for reflective or transparent targets Target should be larger than the reflector
T R

Transmitter / Receiver

Reflector (prismatic)

Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Sensors

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Optical sensors
Type : Diffuse Sensing distance : much less than reflex type, actual distance depends on colour and reflective nature of the surface Larger targets result in longer sensing distances Not suitable for dirty environments

T R

Transmitter / Receiver

Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Sensors

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Reed switch
Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided. If positioned in mid stroke, switching point will vary depending on direction of approach. Maximum current must be limited to avoid burning of the reed contacts.

Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Sensors

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Inductive magnetic sensor


Inductive principle of operation - but only reacts to magnetic fields Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided Solid state device - higher switching frequency - 1kHz

Festo Didactic Training and Consulting

Sensors

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