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COMPANY ANALYSIS

Establishing the Value Benchmark

April 12

OUTLINE
Study of Financials

Going Beyond the Numbers


Estimation of Intrinsic Value Obstacles in the Way of an Analyst Equity Research in India

April 12

Study Of Financials
THE KEY QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED IN APPLYING THE EARNINGS MULTIPLIER APPROACH, THE MOST POPULAR METHOD IN PRACTICE, ARE: WHAT IS THE EXPECTED EPS FOR THE FORTHCOMING YEAR?

WHAT IS A REASONABLE PE RATIO?


TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS, INVESTMENT ANALYSTS START WITH A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF EARNINGS (AND DIVIDENDS), GROWTH, RISK, AND VALUATION AND USE THIS AS A FOUNDATION FOR DEVELOPING THE FORECASTS REQUIRED FOR ESTIMATING THE INTRINSIC VALUE. April 12

Earnings And Dividend Level


TO ASSESS THE EARNINGS AND DIVIDEND LEVEL,

INVESTMENT ANALYSTS LOOK AT METRICS LIKE


THE RETURN ON EQUITY, BOOK VALUE PER SHARE, EPS, DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO, AND DIVIDEND PER SHARE.

April 12

Financials Of Horizon Ltd


Net Sales Cost of goods sold Gross profit Operating expenses Operating profit Non-operating surplus/deficit Profit before interest and tax (PBIT) Interest Profit before tax Tax Profit after tax Dividend Retained earnings Equity share capital Reserves and surplus Shareholders funds Loan funds Capital employed Net fixed assets Investments Net current assets Total assets Earnings per share Market price per share (End of the year) 20X1 475 352 123 35 88 4 92 20 72 30 42 20 22 100 65 165 150 315 252 18 45 315 20X2 542 380 162 41 121 7 128 21 107 44 63 23 40 100 105 205 161 366 283 17 66 366 20X3 605 444 161 44 117 9 126 25 101 42 59 23 36 150 91 241 157 398 304 16 78 398 20X4 623 475 148 49 99 6 105 22 83 41 42 27 15 150 106 256 156 412 322 15 75 412 21.00 20X5 701 552 149 60 89 89 21 68 34 34 28 6 150 112 262 212 474 330 15 129 474 2.27 26.50 20X6 771 580 191 60 131 -7 124 24 100 40 60 30 30 150 142 292 228 520 390 20 110 520 4.00 29.10 20X7 840 638 202 74 128 2 130 25 105 35 70 30 40 150 182 332 221 553 408 25 120 553 4.67 31.5

April 12

ROE : 3 Factors
PAT
ROE = SALES x ASSETS

SALES
x

ASSETS
EQUITY

NET PROFIT MARGIN

ASSET TURNOVER

LEVERAGE

THE BREAK-UP OF THE RETURN ON EQUITY IN TERMS OF ITS DETERMINANTS FOR THE PERIOD 20X5 20X7 FOR HORIZON LIMITED IS GIVEN BELOW:
20X5 20X6 20X7 Return on equity = Net profit margin x Asset turnover x Leverage multiplier 13.0 % = 4.85% x 1.48 x 1.81 20.5% = 7.78% x 1.48 x 1.78 21.1% = 8.33% x 1.52 x 1.67

INVESTMENT ANALYSTS USE ONE MORE FORMULATION OF THE ROE WHEREIN IT IS ANALYSED IN TERMS OF FIVE FACTORS :
PROFIT BEFORE TAX ROE = X X SALES ASSETS PBIT April 12 PBIT SALES PROFIT AFTER TAX ASSETS X X PROFIT BEFORE TAX NETWORTH 6

ROE : 5 Factors
PBIT
ROE = SALES x ASSETS

SALES
x

PBT
x PBIT

PAT
x PBT

ASSETS
NET WORTH

ROE = PBIT EFFICIENCY X ASSET TURNOVER X INTEREST BURDEN X TAX BURDEN X LEVERAGE THE ROE BREAK-UP FOR OMEGA COMPANY IS GIVEN BELOW :
ROE = PBIT efficiency x Asset turnover x Interest burden x Tax burden x Leverage 20X5 13.0% = 12.70% x 1.48 x 0.764 x 0.50 x 1.81 20X6 20.5% = 16.08% x 1.48 x 0.81 x 0.60 x 1.78 20X7 21.1% = 15.48% x 1.52 x 0.81 x 0.67 x 1.67

April 12

Book Value Per Share And Earnings Per Share


Book Value Per Share (BVPS)
Paid-up equity capital + Reserves and surplus Number of equity shares BVPS 20 x 5 262/15 = 17.47 20 x 6 292/15 = 19.47 20 x 7 332/15 = 22.13

Earnings Per Share (EPS)


Equity earnings Number of equity shares EPS
April 12

20 x 5 34/15 = 2.27

20 x 6 60/15 = 4.00

20 x 7 70/15 = 4.67
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Dividend Payout Ratio And Dividend Per Share


Dividend Payout Ratio
Equity dividends Equity earnings 20 x 5 Dividend Payout ratio 28/34 = 0.82 30/60 = 0.50 30/70 = 0.43 Dividend Per Share (DPS) 20 x 5 Rs 1.87 20 x 6 2.00 20 x 7 2.00 20 x 6 20 x 7

DPS

April 12

Growth Performance
To measure the historical growth, the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in variables like sales, net profit, earnings per share and dividend per share is calculated.

To get a handle over the kind of growth that can be


maintained, the sustainable growth rate is calculated.

April 12

10

Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)


The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of sales, earnings per share, and dividend per share for a period of five years 20x2 20x7 for Horizon Limited is calculated below:
Sales of 20 x 7 CAGR of Sales : Sales for 20 x 2 CAGR of earnings per share (EPS) : EPS for 20 x 7 EPS for 20 x 2
1/ 5 1/ 5

1=

840 542

1/ 5

1 = 9.2%

1 =

7.00 6.30

1/ 5

1 = 2.1%

CAGR of dividend : DPS for 20 x 7 per share (DPS) DPS for 20 x 2


April 12

1/ 5

1 = 3.00 2.30

1/ 5

1 = 5.5%
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Sustainable Growth Rate


The sustainable growth rate is defined as :
Sustainable growth rate = Retention ratio x Return on equity

Based on the average retention ratio and the average return on equity of the three year period (20x5 20x7) the sustainable growth rate of Horizon Limited is: Sustainable growth rate = 0.417 x 18.2% = 7.58%

April 12

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FAVOURABLE & UNFAVOURABLE FACTORS


FAVOURABLE FACTORS EARNINGS LEVEL GROWTH LEVEL HIGH BOOK VALUE PER SHARE HIGH RETURN ON EQUITY HIGH CAGR IN SALES AND EPS HIGH SUSTAINABLE GROWTH RATE UNFAVOURABLE FACTORS LOW BOOK VALUE PER SHARE LOW RETURN ON EQUITY LOW CAGR IN SALES AND EPS LOW SUSTAINABLE GROWTH RATE

RISK EXPOSURE

LOW VOLATILITY OF RETURN ON EQUITY LOW BETA

HIGH VOLATILITY OF RETURN ON EQUITY HIGH BETA


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April 12

VALUATION MULTIPLES
The most commonly used valuation multiples are :
Price to earnings (PE) ratio Price to book value (PBV) ratio PE Ratio (Prospective) Price per share at the beginning of year n Earnings per share for year n PE ratio

20 x 5 9.25

20 x 6 6.63

20 x 7 6.23

PBV Ratio (Retrospective) Price per share at the end of year n Book value per share at the end of year n PBV ratioApril 12 20 x 5 1.52 20 x 6 1.49 20 x 7 1.42

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GOING BEYOND THE NUMBERS


SIZING UP THE PRESENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS Availability and Cost of Inputs Order Position Regulatory Framework Technological and Production Capabilities Marketing and Distribution Finance and Accounting Human Resources and Personnel EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT Strategy Calibre, Integrity, Dynamism Organisational Structure Execution Capability April 12 Investor - friendliness

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ESTIMATION OF INTRINSIC VALUE


ESTIMATE THE EXPECTED EPS ESTABLISH A P / E RATIO DEVELOP A VALUE ANCHOR AND A VALUE

RANGE

April 12

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EPS FORECAST
20 x 7 (ACTUAL) NET SALES COST OF GOODS SOLD GROSS PROFIT OPERATING EXPNS DEPRECIATION SELLIN & GEN. ADMN. EXPNS OPERATING PROFIT NON-OPERATING SURPLUS/DEFICIT PROFIT BEFORE INT. & TAX (PBIT) INTEREST PROFIT BEFORE TAX TAX PROFIT AFTER TAX NUMBER OF EQUIITY SHARES April 12 EARNINGS PER SHARE 840 638 202 74 30 44 128 2 130 25 105 35 70 15 MLN RS 4.67 20 x 8 (PROJECTED) 924 708 216 81 34 47 135 2 137 24 113 38 75 15 RS 5.00
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ASSUMPTION INCREASE BY 10 PERCENT INCREASE BY 11 PERCENT INCREASE BY 9.5 PERCENT

NO CHANGE

DECREASE BY 4 PERCENT

INCREASE BY 8.57 PERCENT

P / E RATIO

CONSTANT GROWTH DIVIDEND MODEL


DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO P / E RATIO =

REQUIRED RETURN ON EQUITY P/E

EXPECTED GROWTH RATE IN DIVIDENDS

CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS = a1 + a2 GROWTH RATE IN + a3 DIVIDEND EARNINGS PAYOUT RATIO + a3 VARIABILITY IN EARNINGS + a4 COMPANY SIZE

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

WEIGHTED P /E RATIO
April 12 18

RATIO
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS
PE ratio 20 x 5 9.25 20 x 6 6.63 20 x 7 6.23

The average PE ratio is : 9.25 + 6.63 + 6.23 = 7.37 3

April 12

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VALUE ANCHOR AND VALUE RANGE


Value Anchor
Projected EPS x Appropriate PE ratio 5.00 x 6.87 = Rs. 34.35 Value Range Rs.30 Market Price < Rs.30 Rs.30 Rs.38 > Rs.38
April 12

Rs.38 Decision Buy Hold Sell


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OBSTACLES IN THE WAY OF AN ANALYST


Inadequacies or incorrectness of data Future uncertainties Irrational market behaviour

April 12

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SUMMING UP
In practice, the earnings multiplier method is the most popular method. The key questions to be addressed in this method are: what is the expected EPS for the forthcoming year? What is a reasonable PE ratio given the growth prospects, risk exposure, and other characteristics? Historical financial analysis serves as a foundation for answering these questions.

The ROE, perhaps the most important metric of financial performance, is decomposed in two ways for analytical purposes.
ROE = Net profit margin x Asset turnover x Leverage ROE = PBIT efficiency x Asset turnover x Interest burden April 12 x Tax burden x Leverage

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To measure the historical growth, the CAGR in variables like sales, net profit, EPS and DPS is calculated.

To get a handle over the kind of growth that can be maintained, the sustainable growth rate is calculated. Beta and volatility of ROE may be used as risk measures.

An estimate of EPS is an educated guess about the future profitability of the company.
The PE ratio may be derived from the constant growth dividend model, or cross-section analysis, or historical analysis.
April 12 23

The value anchor is : Projected EPS x Appropriate PE ratio PBV-ROE matrix, growth-duration matrix, and expectation risk index are some of the tools to judge undervaluation or overvaluation.

April 12

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