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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

Fundamentals of Computer and programming in C (CMP 101 )

What Is Computing?
Computing is an activity that: needs
computers to perform a task, or create Computers.

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Tasks
Designing and building hardware systems. Designing and building software systems. Processing, structuring, and managing information; Doing scientific research using computers; Creating Intelligent systems; Creating and using communications media;
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Computing Today
HARDWARE SOFTWARE ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS

Electrical Electroni cs

Computer Engineering

Computer Science

Software Engineering

Information Technology Information Systems

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Computer Engineering
Computer Engineering is concerned with the design and construction of computers and computer-based systems. It involves the study of hardware, software, communications, and the interaction among them.

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Computer Science
Computer science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation, and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems.

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Information Systems
Information Systems (IS) is concerned with the strategic, managerial and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing , storing, distributing and use of information, and its associated technologies, in society and organizations.
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Information Technology
Information technology is the computing needs for business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations. The term information technology is often used to refer to all of computing.

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Software Engineering
Software engineering is the discipline of developing and maintaining reliable, efficient, and affordable software systems.

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Expectations
Computer engineers should be able to design and
implement systems that involve the integration of software and hardware devices.

Computer scientists should be prepared to work in a


broad range of positions involving tasks from theoretical work to software development.

Information systems specialists should be able to


analyze information requirements and business processes and be able specify and design systems that are aligned with organizational goals.

Information technology professionals should be


able to work effectively at planning, implementation, configuration, and maintenance of an organizations computing infrastructure.
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Make Sure you remember and understand these terms and define them in your own words
Computers Computing Goal oriented activity System Hardware Software Processing Structuring Managing Information Intelligent system Communication media Entertainment media Computer Engineering Computer Science Software Engineering Information Technology Information systems computer-based systems computation strategic operational storing reliable efficient affordable

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What is a Computer?
A computer is an electronic device .

CPU
INPUT DEVICE
Motherboard

Arithmetic Logic Unit

ALU
OUTPUT DEVICE

Control Unit
MAIN (PRIMARY) MEMORY

SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICE


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COMPUTE R
ORGANIZATI ON

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BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS


Input unit: used for entering data and programs (code) into storage (memory) unit. Storage unit: Stores data and programs (Code) into Primary/Secondary storage (memory)
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MEMORY
Primary Memory-- Primary storage or memory: Is where the data and program that are currently in operation or being accessed are stored during use. Secondary Memory-- Stores instructions and data between sessions
A file stores data or instructions in secondary http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/s memory 14/04/12 hardafundamental

Primary Memory
Consists of electronic circuits: Extremely fast and expensive. Two types:
RAM (non-permanent)
Programs and data can be stored here for the computers use. Volatile: All information will be lost once the computer shuts down.

ROM (permanent)
Contents do not change.

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Secondary Memory
A computer might have any of these types of secondary memory
Hard disk
Fast Fixed in the computer and not normally removed

Floppy disk
Slow Easily shared with other computers

Compact disk
Slower than hard disks Easily shared with other computers Can be read only or re-writable
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Primary storage (memory) Colum


0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Data
Segme nt

# Row # ADDRESS (Row #, Col 3) (2,0) (4,3) (3,2) (9,2)

Code
Segme nt

C (2,0)+C(4,3) C(3,2)
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Dat a

Code : Add content of address (2,0) and content of http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/s hardafundamental address (4, 3) and store the result at (3,2) i.e. replace

Store the data item 50 at address (2,0)

1.Ask the input device to take the number 50 and send it to the main memory. 2.Ask the control unit to store it in the data segment at memory cell
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Store the data item 60 at address (4,3)

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3. Ask the input device to take the number 60 and send it to the main memory. 4. Ask the control unit to store it in the data segment at memory cell
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5. Ask the input device to take the instruction C (2,0)+C(4,3) C(3,2) and send it to the main memory. 6. Ask the control unit to store it in the code segment at main memory
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Store the instruction C (2,0)+C(4,3) C(3,2) at address (9,2)

Instruction execution

Ask the control unit to ask the ALU to execute the instruction given at the cell address (9,2).
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BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS


Central Processing unit (CPU): Performs arithmetic and logical operations using ALU and Control unit.

Controls input, processing and output units inside the computer.


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ALU Executes C (2,0)+C(4,3) C(3,2)


Takes 50 from the cell (2,0) and 50 keeps it in his blue cell Takes 60 from the cell (4,3) and 60 keeps it in his red cell Adds contents of blue and red cells 60 110 and keeps the result50 green cell in + Asks control unit to send (store, copy, ) the content of green cell into the data segment cell at address (3,2)
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Step-by-Step Execution Process Colum


0 1 2 3 0

Data
Segme nt

# Row #
1

5 0

ADDRESS (Row #, Col 3) (2,0) (4,3) (3,2) (9,2)

11 0

Code
Segme nt
50
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6 0

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

60

110

Code : Add the content of the address (2,0) and the content of http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/s the address (4, 3) andhardafundamental store the result at (3,2) i.e. replace the

Output Device
Ask an output device to display it, but How?
Ask the control unit to send the content of the cell at address (3,2) to an output device to display it. The requested output device displays
the result
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Where is the result? can we see it? How

Simple

Summary
All computers perform five basic operations: Input, store, process, control, and output. The main sub-systems of a computer system are: Input system, Processing System (CPU) that contains CU & ALU, Storage System (Primary Memory & secondary memory), and output
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Summary
Input interface: Converts input data and code into binary codes understandable by the computer. Output interface: Receives binary codes and coverts it into the human understood form. Storage system: Primary and Secondary. Primary storage holds or stores data, code (instructions), and intermediate data obtained by executing the code into the http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/s primary (main, on-line, ) memory 14/04/12 hardafundamental

Summary
Secondary, auxiliary or backup memory. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) executes instructions Control unit manages & coordinates the operations of all involved systems at a time. Central processing unit: Control unit (CU) and ALU
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The System Concept


A system may have more than one sub-systems (element). In a system, all its sub-systems are logically related. A system is designed to achieve a predefined goal or target. All sub-systems are controlled to cooperate in performing the assigned tasks to achieve the systems goals.
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Learning outcome
understand basic organisation of computer system Understand computer operation understand the meaning of Arithmetic Logical Unit, Control Unit and Central Processing Unit define computer memory differentiate between primary memory and secondary memory differentiate between primary storage and secondary storage units http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/s differentiate between input devices and 14/04/12 hardafundamental

Practice Questions
List operations performed by each subsystem of a computer system. Draw a block diagram to show the basic computer organization. What is an input interface? And what is an output interface? What is the difference between them? Why do we need two types of storage ? How do they differ?
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Practice Questions
List the basic components of the CPU. Explain the role of each component. What is address or memory address? What is content? What is memory cell? Can it also be called bit, byte or word. What are arithmetic operations? What are logical operations?
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Practice Questions
Why some people say information system is nothing but input, processing, output (IPO)? Why is it precise to call a computer as computer system?

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You must remember these words


SECONDARY Arithmetic STORAGE Logic Electronic Unit Motherboard Control Segment Colum PRIMARY Row DEVICE ORGANIZATIO ADDRESS Content N Replace Control http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/s
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Execute Instruction Cell Performs Operations Logical Inside Display Requested Differentiate