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Basic Injection & Painting

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Molding Defects: Flow Marks Staggered type flow marks

This flow-mark pattern is characterized by alternating areas of glossy and cloudy plastic.

Cause This type of flow mark is caused by unstable flow at the flow front.

Countermeasure
- Lower the setting for injection speed. - Raise the temperature of the plastic and the die. If this problem becomes worse, it may develop into silver streaking and care must therefore be taken.
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Molding Defects: Flow Marks

The term "flow mark" is used to describe the phenomenon where a striped pattern is formed around the gates when plastic has flowed through the die.

In this, plastic which has been cooled by sprues and runners is further cooled in the cavity and filling occurs at high viscosity. Consequently, plastic in contact with the mold surface is pressurized in a semi-solidified condition and stripes perpendicular to the flow direction are formed on the surface of the molded product.

Uneven thickness type

Record type

Staggered type

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Molding Defects: Color Streaks

The phenomenon of color streaking is characterized by localized changes in the color of a molded component or by streaking.

Examples of variation from the original color Causes This type of problem is principally caused by poor thermal stability of the coloring agent. Furthermore, it occurs more easily in locations such as welds, ribs, and the like which are likely to induce shear flow. Countermeasures Switch to a coloring agent with good thermal stability. In terms of molding conditions, it is desirable for the plastic and die temperature 4 to be high, and for the speed of flow to be low (i.e., hot-slow molding).
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Example of a streaking pattern in a molded product Cause Poor distribution of coloring agent. (The quality of coloring-agent distribution can be evaluated by using a compressing molding machine to manufacture thin sheeting.) Cleaning effect of plastic deposited within the molding machine (or cylinder). Countermeasures Improve the quality of distribution during compounding. Fully clean the inside of the cylinders. (We recommend our own UMG Clean for this purpose.) Check the screw head, back-flow prevention rings, and other similar items for defects. Change the molding machine. 5
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Molding Defects: Short Shot or Short Mold

The term "short shot" or "short mold" is used to refer to a phenomenon where plastic being injection molded does not reach certain portions of the inside of the die before solidifying. Some of the typical factors affecting this type of problem are as follows: - Fluidity and viscosity characteristics of the plastic - Die design (i.e., gate design, bushing construction for ribs and bosses, the presence of venting, etc.) - Direct carving design - Molding conditions - Molding machine performance

Condition

Location Cause

On surfaces Generation of gas

Ribs and bosses Material thickness and gas volume

Corners and tips Plastic viscosity

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Short Shot Checkpoints

Insufficient plastic fluidity (i.e., viscosity is high): Checkpoints and countermeasures Die temperature : Increase within the range for removability Note that as the molding cycle becomes longer as a result of this, care must be taken with regard to cylinder residence time. * Refer to the molding condition sheet Screw failure : Replace the back-flow prevention ring Note that this is applicable to situations where there is disparity in the degree of cushioning during injection or back flow. Unstable supply - Lower the temperature at the rear of the cylinder. If plastic at the hopper opening is bridging - Increase the cooling water volume at the hopper opening : If plastic at the hopper opening is bridging - Correct the back pressure : Insufficient or excess back pressure. Injection speed : Increase the injection speed. If no change in the filling time is noticed after setting of a high injection rate, there is a possibility that the performance of the molding machine is insufficient or that there is excessive pressure loss in the sprues, runners, and gates; accordingly, separate evaluation and modification of the molding machine's performance will be needed. * Refer to the molding condition sheet Injection output : a Raise the injection output If the problem persists even after setting of a high pressure, it is highly probable that the same factors as described in the above items are at work. Plastic temperature : Raise the temperature within the service range. 7 * Refer to the molding condition sheet Grade change : Switch to a grade with better fluidity. * Alternative grade search
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Insufficient plastic fluidity (i.e., viscosity is high): Checkpoints and countermeasures Die temperature : Increase within the range for removability Note that as the molding cycle becomes longer as a result of this, care must be taken with regard to cylinder residence time. * Refer to the molding condition sheet Screw failure : Replace the back-flow prevention ring Note that this is applicable to situations where there is disparity in the degree of cushioning during injection or back flow. Unstable supply - Lower the temperature at the rear of the cylinder. If plastic at the hopper opening is bridging - Increase the cooling water volume at the hopper opening : If plastic at the hopper opening is bridging - Correct the back pressure : Insufficient or excess back pressure. Injection speed : Increase the injection speed. If no change in the filling time is noticed after setting of a high injection rate, there is a possibility that the performance of the molding machine is insufficient or that there is excessive pressure loss in the sprues, runners, and gates; accordingly, separate evaluation and modification of the molding machine's performance will be needed. * Refer to the molding condition sheet Injection output : a Raise the injection output If the problem persists even after setting of a high pressure, it is highly probable that the same factors as described in the above items are at work. Plastic temperature : Raise the temperature within the service range. * Refer to the molding condition sheet Grade change : Switch to a grade with better fluidity. * Alternative grade search

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Die design: Checkpoints and countermeasures Uneven thickness (if both thin and thick walled sections are present within the same cavity) Standardize the wall thickness in each cavity. Note that this can result in sink marks on the top of ribs and bosses, and therefore, special care must be taken in this regard. Rib and boss design (if constantly occurring in specific ribs and bosses) Use shaped-section bushings and ensure smooth extraction of gas from the extremities of dead-end sections.

Hesitance (if flow patterns and gate layouts are defective) a Modify the gate design (i.e., method, dimensions, locations, and quantity)

Defective cooling design (if the distribution of die temperatures is non-uniform) Review the adjustment of temperature (i.e., the cooling design) and the performance of the die's temperature regulator.

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Molding Defects: Flash (fins or spew)


The terms "flash", "fins", and "spew" are used to refer to excess molding material that penetrates into mold gaps (i.e., between parting faces, slide push-out faces, and inserts, etc.) in a molten state.
Normal Flash

Molding machine Causes - Insufficient mold clamping pressure in the molding machine. - Aging of the die.
Countermeasures - If there is insufficient clamping pressure, estimate the correct pressure using the following equation and choose an appropriate molding machine. Die clamping pressure = Projected surface area x die-internal effective injection pressure / 1,000 kg In the case of ABS, a rough value for 400 kg/cm2 can be used in this calculation for 10 the die-internal effective injection pressure
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Die

Causes - Insufficient mold clamping pressure. - Insufficient precision at the die's mating faces - The molded product is arranged in a cantilever-type setup as a result of die design. Countermeasures - Switch to a suitable molding machine. - If the problem is related to mating faces, a joint examination must be carried out with the die machining company.

Material

Causes - Plastic has low viscosity.


Countermeasures - If the problem is related to the plastic's viscosity, either lower the temperature of the plastic or switch to a grade with higher flowability.

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Molding Defects: Delamination


The term "delamination" is used to refer to a condition where a thin micaceous layer develops on the molded product and then becomes separated. In severe cases, this will extend over the entire molding and give the impression that its skin is peeling away.

Layer peeling caused by fracture (right) as a result of PS inclusion Although peeling may be identified immediately after molding, it is usually detected as a result of cracking 12 of the product.
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Cause 1
Inclusion of a plastic which has poor compatibility with ABS (i.e., PP or PS, etc.)

Countermeasure
Carry out cleaning. - Inside the cylinder - Inside the hopper - Inside the air feed lines - Inside the dryer

Cause 2
When the die and plastic temperatures are extremely low, the difference in temperatures between the outer walls and the fluid layer results in the development of a thin hard coating which then peels

Countermeasure
Standardize the resin temperatures. - Raise the temperature of the resin - Raise the temperature of the die

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Molding Defects: Silver Streaks


Gaseous components in the plastic appear at the molding surface and collapse. Click on any of the following photographs for the corresponding causes and countermeasures.

Cause

Insufficient drying
Illustration

Inclusion of air
Illustration

Degradation
Illustration

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Molding Defects: Stringiness


The term "stringiness" is used to refer to a phenomenon where string-line sections of plastic which are formed upon opening of the die adhere to the inside of the die and are transferred to the product during the next shot, resulting in string-line unevenness on the surface of the molded component.

Thin plastic string formed at the tip of a sprue

Plastic string after transfer to the molded component

Cause This problem is principally caused by high nozzle temperatures. Countermeasures Lower the nozzle temperature; alternatively, make combined use of pull-back and cylinder repetition. Strings can be forced to break by increasing the speed of die opening, however, care must be taken as this can result in reduced die service lives for certain die designs (i.e., slides, etc.). 15 Use a string-prevent ring (commercially available).
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Molding Defects: Weld Lines


The term "weld line" is used to describe the narrow V-shaped line that occurs at the point where two different flow fronts meet. This phenomenon is guaranteed to occur whenever using inserts, lattices, or multi-point gates, and there is no theoretical means for its elimination; accordingly, its effect must be minimized or the resulting marks must be moved from a decorative face to a side face. To the untrained eye, a weld line may seem to be a crack. In terms of product specifications, the presence of weld lines in areas of stress concentrations may lead to strength problems, and therefore, countermeasures should be implemented in advance.

Weld lines disappear when the angle of meeting is 120deg. or more.

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Cause Weld line factors Shape of molded component - Holes (i.e., lattices, round holes, square holes) - Differences in material thickness (or uneven thickness) Plastic - Fluidity (or viscosity) Die - Die temperature - Gates (number and location) - Gas vents (method and location) - Cooling ducts (and die temperature distribution) Molding machine - Performance (precision and response) - Injection and plasticization

Countermeasures Shaping conditions used to minimize weld lines - Plastic temperature a High - Die temperature a High - Injection speed a Low *Although weld lines will become less obvious when the speed is increased (i.e., the depth is minimized), there is a tendency for their length to increase. - Holding pressure a High * Marks are made less noticeable using the compression effect of the weld's V-notch.
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Verification Die temperature which is most effective in minimizing weld lines

Normal molding Die temperature: 40deg.C Weld section (central) Width: Approximately 10 mm Depth: Approximately 120 mm

High-speed heat and cool molding Die temperature: 100deg.C Weld section (central) Not visible with the naked eye

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Painting Defects : Cracks


As with pin holes, these fine cracks on the painted surface are caused by solvent attack, and this phenomenon is often seen in acrylic painting. These cracks generally occur near gates and at edges in particular. We recommend our special painting grades for use in painted products

Example: Acrylic paint Cause Solvent in the paint attacks sections of the substrate material where levels of residual strain are high, thus causing chemical stress.

Countermeasures - Selection of a less aggressive solvent - Modification of the paint and solvent mixture ratios - Annealing (at between 60deg.C and 70deg.C for 20 to 60 minutes) - Raising of the cylinder temperature and die temperature. - Lowering of the injection and dwell pressures, and raising of the injection speed * Generally speaking, the addition of retarder is not a good means of treating chemical cracks.

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Painting Defects : Sinking


Solvent in the paint penetrates the component near the gates, at areas of varying thickness, or near welds; consequently, luster becomes uneven and fine cracks develop. We recommend our special painting grades for use in painted products.

Normal surface Example : Metallic acrylic paint

Sinking

Cause This problem often occurs at areas close to gates with molding defects such as gate flash, flow marks, or jetting; furthermore, these factors are difficult to eliminate even by annealing.

Countermeasures - Selection of a less aggressive thinner - Slight increase of the paint's viscosity - Raising of the cylinder temperature and die temperature. - Lowering of the injection pressure and raising of the injection speed - Modification of the gate type (i.e., switching to the use of tab gates)

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Painting Defects : Poor Adhesion


One of a number of phenomena where paint peels from the surface of the component, poor adhesion is generally identified during paint-film property testing. We recommend our special painting grades for use in painted products.

Example: Poor adhesion as identified in a cross cut test

Cause Although this phenomenon readily occurs when contaminants such as grease or mold release agent are present on the surface of the molded component, it is also affected by matching of the substrate and paint (i.e., solubility and wetting, etc.) and by the condition of the paint itself (i.e., thinner, viscosity, film thickness). Countermeasures - Degreasing of the molded component's surfaces (using n-hexane, IPA, etc.) - Switching to paint with lower cohesive power (cohesive power < adhesive power a no peeling) - Thickening of the paint film - Increasing of the injection speed ( increase orientation and raise thinner attack )

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Painting Defects : Pinholes


Often seen in urethane painting, this phenomenon is characterized by the appearance of small holes on the painted surface, and it is also known as "cratering." We recommend our special painting grades for use in painted products.

Example: Urethane paint Cause 1 Inclusion of air Pinholes can be caused when air bubbles trapped in the paint film expand during drying and break through the surface. Furthermore, this phenomenon is not dependent on the substrate, and it occurs often in high-temperature, high-humidity environments; with thick application of paint; when there is insufficient setting time; and when the speed of thinner evaporation during drying is high. Countermeasures - Modification of the painting environment - Lengthening of the setting time - Reduction of the paint's viscosity - Slowing of the thinner evaporation speed Cause 2 Residual strain When the plastic substrate contains residual stress, the material is attacked by the paint's solvent and fine cracking occurs. The solvent penetrates into these cracks, and when this then evaporates during the drying process, the resulting vapor bursts through the surface of the painted film. Countermeasures - Selection of a less aggressive solvent - Modification of the paint and solvent mixture ratios - Annealing of the unpainted component (at between 60deg.C and 70deg.C for 20 to 60 minutes) - Raising of the cylinder temperature and die temperature - Lowering of the injection pressure and raising of the injection speed

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Painting Defects : Crawling


With indentations of 1 mm or more in diameter occurring on the painted surface, this phenomenon results in the substrate becoming visible. We recommend our special painting grades for use in painted products.

Example: Urethane paint

Cause This problem occurs when a contaminant with lower surface tension (i.e., lower wetting) than the paint adheres to the surface of the molded component. - Mold release agent (i.e., silicon oil) - Machinery grease - Dust or other contaminants attracted by static electricity Countermeasures - Regulation of the painting environment to eliminate the causative agents - Degreasing of the molded component's surfaces (using n-hexane, IPA, etc.)

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Molding Defects: Sink Marks (or shrink marks)


Sink marks or shrink marks are hollows or indentations that occur on the outer surfaces of molded components. Whether or not sink marks are treated as a problem depends on the required quality of appearance. For example, this would not be acceptable for external molding components which must be highly attractive in nature. It is often the case that the decision on whether or not to treat this phenomenon as a defect depends on product quality issues.

Sink mark behavior depends on the volumetric shrinkage of the plastic (i.e., the isothermal PVT characteristic) and the chronological history of all locations within the injection molding process is important. In specific terms, this phenomenon occurs during the transition from the molten condition upon injection to the solid condition upon dwelling and cooling. Molten plastic that has been injected into the die begins to cool and solidify from the die surface. As the plastic continues to cool and harden from the outside (i.e., during dwell and cooling), certain injection settings such as the dwell pressure and time make it impossible to compensate for changes in volume of the plastic (i.e., volumetric shrinkage) resulting from the PVT characteristic. In these cases, the plastic at the surface of the die can be drawn towards the inside of the molding when volumetric shrinkage occurs in the molten plastic still present at the interior, and this results in the cosmetic defect referred to as sink marks.

Alternatively, when the outer layer of the molded component has sufficient strength to resist the pull of volumetric shrinkage, voids will be generated at the interior, and in certain cases, this will not be manifested as an appearance-related problem. Furthermore, if latent causes exist in the shape of the product (i.e., bosses, ribs, thick sections, uneven thickness, etc.) or in the construction of the die (i.e., cooling duct design, die material, cooling agent, etc.), it will be impossible to eliminate sink mark 24 problems unless advance countermeasures are implemented at the product design and die design stages.
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Localized sink marks (effect of rear surface shape and flow tips)

FACTOR Material thickness Product Gate position and method Resin temperature Die temperature Injection speed VP switching Dwelling pressure Molding conditions / Molding machine performance Dwelling time Back pressure Screw speed Amount of cushioning Measurement Die clamping pressure

CAUSE Thick or uneven (thin)

COUNTERMEASURE Removal of material, standardizing thickness, thickening Addition of gates, modification of method Reduce (or increase) Reduce (or increase) Reduce (or increase) Slower position Increase Lengthen Increase Reduce Increase (excess is unacceptable) Replace with normal component Increase Increase

Inadequate (design restrictions) High (or low) High (or low) High (or low) Fast Low Short Low (measurement disparity) Temperature increase due to rotation Insufficient, disparity Mechanical back-flow Insufficient Insufficient (presence of flash)

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FACTOR Nozzle holes Sprues Runners Gates Die Cooling circuit

CAUSE Small cross section Small cross section Small cross section Small cross section Insufficient (temperature disparity) Unsuitable method (i.e., efficiency) Small flow volume / high pressure loss

COUNTERMEASURE Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase, standardize Change method Improve efficiency Usage of material with good thermal conductivity

Die material

Insufficient cooling ability

Sink marks on entire molded component

FACTOR Material thickness Product Gate position and method

CAUSE Thick or uneven (thin) Inadequate (design restrictions)

COUNTERMEASURE Use suitable thickness Addition of gates, modification of method

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FACTOR Resin temperature Die temperature Injection speed VP switching

CAUSE High (or low) High (or low) High (or low) Fast

COUNTERMEASURE Reduce (or increase) Reduce (or increase) Reduce (or increase) Slower position

Dwelling pressure
Molding conditions / Molding machine performance Dwelling time Back pressure Screw speed Amount of cushioning Measurement Die clamping pressure Nozzle holes Sprues Runners Gates Die Cooling circuit

Low
Short Low (measurement disparity) Temperature increase due to rotation Insufficient, disparity Mechanical back-flow Insufficient Insufficient (presence of flash) Small cross section Small cross section Small cross section Small cross section Insufficient (temperature disparity) Unsuitable method (i.e., efficiency) Small flow volume / high pressure loss

Increase
Lengthen Increase Reduce Increase (excess is unacceptable) Replace with normal component Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase, standardize Change method Improve efficiency Usage of material with good thermal conductivity

Die material

Insufficient cooling ability

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Molding Defects: Warping or Twisting


"Warping" is a term used to describe the deformation which occurs when there are differences in the degree of shrinkage at different locations within the molded component.

Factors influencing warping are as follows Differences in shrinkage and cooling time as dependent on the differences in both surface contraction and component thickness which result from differences in die temperature distribution. Residual stress resulting from molecular orientation. In fiber-reinforced materials, there are large differences in the degree of shrinkage in the flow direction and the perpendicular direction, and for this reason, special consideration must be given to gate design (i.e., quantity and location) at the die design stage. For example, if the degrees (or rates) of shrinkage at the various points in a molded component are theoretically identical, this will simply lead to the generation of small, similar-looking cavities, and regardless of the size of the material's shrinkage rate, there will be no occurrence of warping. Nevertheless, a complex mix of the above-mentioned factors will exist during actual molding, and after release of die clamping pressure and removal, the internal strain will try to fall to the minimum level (i.e., to reduce energy to the minimum), thus resulting in the occurrence of molded-component warping. 28 Furthermore, consideration must also be given to insufficient cooling of the molded component and to deformation as a result of defective push-out mechanisms when dies are being designed.
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Warping and Twisting Checkpoints

Causes Molded component shape Distribution of wall thickness Insufficient structural stiffness Areas with non-uniform distribution are included. The structural stiffness of ribs and the like is insufficient. Ribs can actually contribute to warping, and therefore, a detailed examination of thickness and height factors must be undertaken.

Die Cooling circuit Die temperature distribution is non-uniform, the cooling circuit is too long (i.e., large temperature difference between in and out points), control is inadequate, or the cooling method is not suitable. Low thermal conductivity (i.e., low cooling efficiency) Non-uniform distribution of pressure in the dwelling process due to an insufficient number of gates or poor positioning Poor push-out balance or excessive ejection load with respect to the pin surface area Insufficient polishing in the core extraction direction, inadequate extraction angle 29
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Die material Gate and runner Push-out mechanism Parting

Molding machine and accessories

Insufficient die clamping force


Die temperature regulator

Inability to setup suitable clamping conditions (i.e., pressure and time) Flow volume of cooling agent is insufficient (i.e., Reynolds number is not large enough for turbulent flow), insufficient performance in terms of die thermal capacity.

Molding conditions Resin temperature Die temperature Pressure transmissibility drops when the viscosity is high; consequently, uniformity in the degree of shrinkage is not possible in the dwelling process. When excessively low, the viscosity increases and the pressure transmissibility drops; consequently, uniformity in the degree of shrinkage is not possible in the dwelling process. Crystallization (or solidification) takes place before directional or stress relaxation can take place, and anisotropical residual stress remain. Either too high or low (i.e., flow length in excess of the plastic's flow characteristic) Either too high or low (Over-packing in the vicinity of the gates, or back-flow as a result of poor gate sealing)

Injection pressure Dwelling pressure Dwelling time Cooling time

Either too long or short (Over-packing in the vicinity of the gates, or back-flow as a result of poor gate sealing)
Too short (dependence of material strength on temperature)

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JENIS NG : Flow Mark


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Resin temp is low and viscosity is too high Injection speed is low Nozzle is small Injection holding pressure time is too short Injection holding pressure is poor Poor cushion amount for material Cold flow mark occur die to pressure of cold slugs Nozzle temp is low

MOLD / MATERIAL
Mold temp is low Mold cooling is unsuitable Slug pool is small Gate is large Resin flow is poor

JENIS NG : Silver Streaks


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Poor injection cavity and plasticizing capacity Resin dissolved due to overheating Resin temp is low and melting is poor Resin is partially cracked due to residual melt in barrel Injection speed is too high Air intake clogged Back Pressure is small Interior of the barrel is dirty Screw speed is too high

MOLD / MATERIAL
Melt temp is low Gas purging is poor Gate position is inferior Poor cavity design ( Rapid change of thickness. etc ) Gate, Runner or sprue is too small Slug pool is small Moisture or lubricant adhered to mold surface Moisture or volatile matter included in materials 31
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JENIS NG : Hose ( Poor Luster )


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Uneven melting of resin or resin is partially over headed Nozzle is cold Nozzle hole is small Injection speed is to high or too low Resin is dissolved due to over heating Other matter mixed in material

MOLD / MATERIAL
Mold temp is high or low Gate, runner and sprue are small Slug pool is small Water or oil adhered to mold surface Gas purging is poor Excessive utilization of mold release agent Moisture and volatile matter include in materials volatile mater in lubricant

JENIS NG : Weld Lines


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Resin temp is low and fluidity is poor Injection pressure is low Injection speed is low Nozzle is cold Back pressure is low

MOLD / MATERIAL
Distance between gate and weld section is long Mold temp is low Gate position and number are unsuitable Gate and runner are too small Gas purging is poor Flow is poor

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JENIS NG : Bubbles
SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Injection pressure is low Holding pressure is low Holding time is short Injection speed is too high or too low Resin temp is low or viscosity is too high Resin temp is high and gas is produced Air intake ( screw speed is to high )

MOLD / MATERIAL
Gas purging is poor Interior cavity design ( Radical thickness change ) Gate position is unsuitable Gate, runner or sprue are too small Cooling time is too long Mold temp is low Air intake Resin shrinkage percentage is large

JENIS NG : Burn Marks


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Resin flow is inhibited or setters is one portion of barrel, and is dissolved Poor nozzle installation Burning due to adiabatic compression with material wear in barrel or air Poor cooling at hopper installation section Barrel temp is high Injection pressure is high Injection speed is fast Long holding time in barrel Screw speed is too high Back pressure is too high

MOLD / MATERIAL
Grease or oil present Resin is dissolved due to frictional heat at the gate Poor gas purging Excessive lubrication Volatile matter is included Filler with poor thermal stability is used

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JENIS NG : Crazing, Cracking


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Injection pressure is high Resin temp is low and viscosity is too high Holding time is long Holding pressure is high Product push out speed is high Mold opening speed at beginning is high

MOLD / MATERIAL
Gate is too wide Mold temp is low Core creates vacuum at release Poor cavity design ( inside stress is generated avoid concentration ) Unsuitable Annealing Product draft is small Mold cavity: core polishing is poor

JENIS NG : Warp
SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Injection Pressure is high Holding pressure is high Holding time is long Poor Resin Melting Resin temp is low Injection speed is low Cooling time is short Utilize correcting tool for wrap after releasing

MOLD / MATERIAL
Poor releasing Unsuitable ejection Uneven or insufficient cooling Gate is large Mold temp is high Uneven thickness Under cutting Unsuitable annealing

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JENIS NG : Cracking
SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Injection pressure is high Resin temp is low and viscosity is too high Holding pressure is high Holding time is long Excessive charging Cooling time is short

MOLD / MATERIAL
Resin adheres to the mold due too poor cooling Mold temp is low Gate is too wide Poor gas purging Poor gate balance Nozzle diameter is large than sprue hole Sphere al radius of nozzle tip is large than sprue bushing Sprue diameter and taper are unsuitable

JENIS NG : Unfilled ( Short Shot )


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Poor injection capacity ( volume and plasticizing ability ) Material supply quantity insufficient Injection pressure is low Resin temp is low Injection speed is low Nozzle resistance is large ( diameter is small or nozzle is long ) Screw charging is poor Nozzle is cold Back flow prevention ring is broken

MOLD / MATERIAL
Gate balance is poor Gate, runner and sprue are small Mold temp is low Cold slug appear Mold cavity is to thin Gas purging is inadequate Insert ribs or other element to improve flow Poor flow of materials Improver lubricating treatment

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JENIS NG : Flashes
SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Injection pressure is too high Clamping force is small Excessive injection quantity Resin temp is to high Injection holding pressure time is long Injection speed is to high

MOLD / MATERIAL
Poor mold parallelism Parting lines die not matched Preserve of foreign material between mold halves Projection area is too large Decrease the mold temp Wear of the mold half parting surface Resin viscosity during mold is to low

JENIS NG : Sink Mark


SETTING / MOLDING MACHINE
Injection pressure is low Injection holding pressure time is large short Injection speed is low Charging quantity is insufficient Resin temp is to high Nozzle resistance is large Mold opening is too early Nozzle is cold Back Flow prevention ring is broken or worn

MOLD / MATERIAL
Mold temp is too high Mold temp is not even Gate is too small Runner and sprue are thin Cavity thickness is uneven Unsuitable ejector pin shape Resin flow is too fluid Shrinkage rate is large

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