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Lesson 28 Measure of Central Tendency and Dispersion

Notes

Statistics
Numerical values used to summarize and compare sets of data. Two types of statistics are: - Measure of Central Tendency - Dispersion

Measure of Central Tendency


A number used to represent the center or middle of a set of data values. Types of measures of Central Tendency: - Mean = average denoted x - Median = middle number - Mode = most often

Dispersion
A number that tells you how dispersed, or spread out, the data values are. Types of measures of Dispersion: - range (difference between largest and smallest values) - standard deviation

Standard Deviation
A number that describes the typical difference between a data value and the mean.

The standard deviation, (sigma) of a data set x1, x2 , , xn is:

( x1 x) ( x2 x) ... ( xn x) n
2 2

Outlier
A number that is extremely large or small in comparison to the rest of the set of data. Outliers can greatly affect the measures of central tendency.

Example 1.
You are training for a triathlon. The miles that you ride your bike for 7 weeks are: 17, 20, 16, 18, 22, 19, 20

(a) Measures of Central Tendency


17 20 16 18 22 19 20 Mean ( x) 18.9 7

Median (put numbers in order first) = 19 22, 20, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16

Mode = the number that occurs most often =


20

(b) Measures of Dispersion


Range = difference in largest and smallest values 22 16 = 6 Standard Deviation () =
(22 18.9) 2 (20 18.9) 2 (20 18.9) 2 (19 18.9) 2 (18 18.9) 2 (17 18.9) 2 (16 18.9) 2 7

Be generous with your parenthesis in your calculator!

1.88

(b) Measures of Dispersion


How to find standard deviation on your calculator:

1) Enter the data into a list - Stat Edit (Enter into L1) 2) Sort the data - Home screen (quit) - 2nd Stat (list) OPS Sort A(L1) 3) Standard Deviation - Stat CALC 1-Var Stats - Look for the x entry

This will also give you the mean x


You can also find the median by: 2nd Stat (list) MATH median(L1)

(c)
Now add th eoutlier 3 to your list. (Put it in the stat list in your calculator as well) Mean = Mode = = 16.9 20 Median = 18.5

Range = 19

5.53

(d)
Which measure of central tendency did the outlier effect the most? The mean was effected the most. The sum of the data is now divided by 8 but the total only went up 3. The mode remained unchanged.

(e)
How does an outlier effect the dispersion? The outlier causes both the range and the standard deviation to increase. Now the data set is dispersed over a greater range.

Example 2.
The weights of 5 people are given:

138, 142, 155, 140, 155 (a) Mean = 146 Median = 142 Mode =
Range =

155
17 7.46

If each person lost 3 pounds:


135, 139, 152, 137, 152 (b) Mean = 143 Median = 139 Mode = Range = =

152
17 7.46

Convert original weights to kg. (mult by 0.45)


62.1, 63.9, 69.75, 63, 69.75 (c) Mean = 65.7 Median = 63.9 Mode = Range = =

69.75
7.65 3.36

Apply Transformations to Sets of Data


Adding a Constant to a Set of Data
When a constant value is added to every value in a data set: - The measures of central tendency can be obtained by adding the same constant to the original values. - The measures of dispersion remain unchanged.

Apply Transformations to Sets of Data


Multiplying Data Values by a Constant
When a constant value is multiplied to every value in a data set: - The measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion can be obtained by multiplying all values by the constant.

Example 3.
The following are 10 quiz scores:

21, 18, 23, 25, 19, 20, 24, 21, 23, 22


(a) Mean = Mode = Range = = 21.6

Median = 21.5

21 and 23
7 2.11

If 4 points are added:


(b) Mean = Mode = 25.6 25 and 27 7

Median = 25.5

Range =
=

2.11

Add 4 to the measures of central tendency!

If each score is increased 10%:


(c) Mean = Mode = 23.76 23.1 and 25.3 7.7

Median = 23.65

Range =
=

2.32

Multiply everything by 1.10!