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TU outcome of factory system Based on labour philosophy (united v stand divided v fall)

Fourteen decades old 1860 Philanthropists & social reformers inhuman working conditions difficulties Strike committees demanding privileges
145 yrs put into 6 periods

1.Pre 1918
Bengal 1860 Dinbandhu Mitra (dramatist & Social reformer) + journalists hardship of cultivators & plantation workers Govt Indigo committee report cruelties by plantation owners (aid of British law) abolished
1875 Sarobji Shapuri Bengal Poor working conditions Secretary of State Ist Factory Commission Factories Act enacted - 1881

Act not meet Child labour & Women workers Another Commission(1884) N.K.Lokhande Bombay memorandum signed by 5300 workers rest on Sunday hr recess Hrs btn 6.30 to sunset payment within 15th injury compensation 1889 Bombay workers demanded the same

No use another representation to Govt 1890 Now signed by 17000 workers Started Bombay Mills association Lokhande (president) Labour journal (Dinbandhu) placed demands b4 Factory Labour Commission(1890) Bangalee (member) gave due consideration
Several unions were formed

Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants (India & Burma) 1897 Indian Companies Act Printers Union 1905 Calcutta Bombay Postal Union 1907 - Kamgar Hityardhak Sabha 1910 Post 1890 several strikes Bombay(1894) Big strike Mill operatives of Ahmadabad Feb 1896 Weekly to fortnightly wage system Strike unsuccessful

Jute Industries Calcutta(1896) Bombay(1897)- daily wages Plague Press & Machine section of Madras(1903) overtime work without payment 6 month Starvation & hardship returned to work 2 yrs later Govt of India Press Calcutta questioned
Non-payment on Sunday & gazetted holidays Imposition of irregular fines Low rate of overtime pay Refusal of authorities to grant leave on medical certificate

Strike continued returned on partial fulfillment Dec 1907 - Eastern railway workshop Increment of wages After 6 days xtra allowance due to famine Bombay postal union & Indian telegraph Association 1908 Textile cooperative workers in sympathy Bal Ganga dhar Tilak 1910 reduction of working hours commission setup recommended - 12 hours a day

Certain features
Movement led by philanthropists & social reformers not by workers No trade Union in modern sense Association relied on petition, memoranda, other constitutional means to place demands Early movement confined to revolt against conditions of child labour & women workers in various industries Absence of strikes - grievance redressed Strike - problem of law & order police charging strikers

1918 - 1924
Era of Modern trade unionism Madras labour union,Ahmedabad Textile labour Association, Indian Seamens Union, Calcutta Clerks Union, All India Postal All India Trade Union Congress started 1920 Trade unions strikes Economy down Increased Wages not match for Price rise Labour shortage Due to Influeza

Factors responsible for growth

Demand for Indian goods rose shortage in shipping facilities Same trade unions bargaining position Political conditions helped growth of TU mutually needed Revolution in Russia impact on TU movement Worldwide Unrest in the post-war period India International labour Organisation (1919) Govt didnt consult unions need to organise AITUC formed members sent changed Govt attitude

1925 - 1934
Split in AITUC Leftist & Rightist Wing All India Trade Union Federation 1929 Communist Influence Hardship of workers decrease in Industrial conflict 2 reasons Trade Disputes act(1929) Failure in lockouts & strikes led to strife Trade Unions Act 1926 registration of TU & legal protection Trade Disputes Act(1929) adhoc conciliation of board & court of enquiry for settlement of trade disputes Affects whole community

Unity forced revival 1935 All India Red Trade Union Congress merged with AITUC 1938 agreement btn AITUF & AITUC NTUC affiliated with AITUC Factors Change of political setup (Congress Govt) Strengthen TU & Conditions of Labour Working class weakened better conditions Mgt Changed attitude on TU

1938 Bombay Industrial Disputes Act features

Compulsory recognition of TU by employers Right to employee case thro representatives (or) Govt labour Officer Certification of standing orders Working conditions known to workmen Industrial Court where Arbitration / Conciliation didnt do good Prohibition of strike & lockout

WWII Chaos in IR unrest due to Price rise no pace to wage increase Split in AITUC Post war retrenchment & unemployment Increase in TU & Women workers & strikes 1946 Industrial enactment act uniformity in workmen employment & minimise conflict employer more than 100 employees define conditions & make it known to workers BIRA recognition of TU & Rights

TU diversified on Political considerations Labour leaders of Congress party Indian National Trade Union Congress(1947) 1948 Socialist party Hind Mazdoor Sabha 1949 United trade Union Congress 1947 - Industrial Disputes Act Strike prohibition without prior intimation & Trade Unions (amendment) Act recognition of TU & Penalties for unfair practices

23 Jul 1954 Bharatiya Mazdoor party (BJP) Check communist unions Changes in Trade union Act 1960 Patna 21 Mar 1964 All India Trade Union Congress by independent Unions but vain 2 changes in the act in 1964 Split - Centre of Indian Trade Union by Marxist communist from AITUC70 United Trade Union Congress Lenin Sarani (1970-72)