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The Impact of Computing Technologies to the Job Sectors

EMPOWERING COMPUTERS IN THE WORKPLACE

COMPUTERS & EMPLOYMENT


People predicted that the latest technologies

will result to a declining employment rate in the manufacturing and commerce industry.
According to Forrester and Morrison (1994),

this impact was not as great as predicted due to three main reasons.

COMPUTERS & EMPLOYMENT


THREE MAIN REASONS:

The introduction of computers into the workplace was slower than expected due to financial, technical, human and organizational problems

COMPUTERS & EMPLOYMENT


THREE MAIN REASONS:

The alarming rate of unemployment that

existed at the time was not seen to increase dramatically

COMPUTERS & EMPLOYMENT


THREE MAIN REASONS:

In the US and Europe, the baby boom

generations entry into the workforce was largely complete by the end of the 80s and the arrival of the baby burst generation in the 1990s saw some shortages of labor developing.
Baby Boom Generation = Post World War II, 60s 70s Baby Burst Generation = Generation X, late 70s early 80s

COMPUTERS & EMPLOYMENT


Results of the computerization of factories

and offices:
Employment opportunities for less skilled manual and clerical workers
Job losses in traditional manufacturing industries Emergence of the IT Industry incorporates hardware, software, development, web design, technical and administrative support, and computer services

COMPUTERS & EMPLOYMENT


Employment fields where computers have

replaced people:
Bank Tellers Telephone Switchboard Operators Electric Meter readers Customer Service Employees Railway dispatch operation employees Floor Couriers (Messengers) Travel Agency Personnel Other Manual Labor Factory Workers
accdg. to Sara Baase, 2003

COMPUTERS & EMPLOYMENT


Employment fields where computers have

created new jobs:


Internet-Related Jobs Cellular Communications Industry Chip makers Computer Scientists and Engineers Information Technology System Analysts and Computer Programmers Support Staff, e.g. receptionists, janitors and clerks Design, Marketing, Manufacture, Sales, Customer Service, Repair and Maintenance
accdg. to Sara Baase, 2003

COMPUTERS & WORK QUALITY


Different views on the effects of computers in

the quality of work on a workplace:


Computers provide an opportunity to

increase worker skills.


Workers engage with the technology, pleased to develop IT skills and see potential for promotion as a result of increased technical abilities.

COMPUTERS & WORK QUALITY


Different views on the effects of computers in

the quality of work on a workplace:


Computer technology reduces jobs for

skilled workers and increases employment for less-skilled machine-minders.


Manual labor is lessened, while the less skilled but more familiar workers on the machines retain their jobs.

COMPUTERS & WORK QUALITY


Different views on the effects of computers in

the quality of work on a workplace:


New technologies give the company a need

to compete in the marketplace and move with the times.


Constant upgrades and trainings are needed to keep up with the fast-paced computing industry.

COMPUTERS & WORK QUALITY


Different views on the effects of computers in

the quality of work on a workplace:


On Psychological Effects: Automating a

mess only creates automated mess.


Constant required training may not sit well and may cause stress, loss of job satisfaction, low morale and poor management labour relations.

COMPUTERS & WORK QUALITY


Different views on the effects of computers in

the quality of work on a workplace:


On Psychological Effects: Stress,

Depersonalization, Fatigue and Boredom


An automated workplace can increase the temptations to commit misdeeds, diminish human initiative, and cause the abdication of decision making..

COMPUTERS & WORK QUALITY


Different views on the effects of computers in

the quality of work on a workplace:


Health and Safety Hazards: Harmful radiation issues, miscarriages, eyestrain, neck and shoulder problems and arm, hand and finger injury

COMPUTERIZED MONITORING IN THE WORKPLACE


Employee Internet Management (EIM) Software a new class of software able to:
detect the presence of particular file types on a network changes in hardware or software particular content or text strings stored on a network (for pornographic material or abusive emails) excessive use of certain applications browsing on unauthorized websites monitoring bandwidth consumption

COMPUTERIZED MONITORING IN THE WORKPLACE


Monitoring features that can be used in the

workplace:
Web-blocking denying an access to an

employee trying to reach a site which has been found in a specific database End-point device control enables an alert to be sent if unauthorized changes are detected by recording all changes to hardware and software for database update every specified number of minutes

COMPUTERIZED MONITORING IN THE WORKPLACE


Monitoring features that can be used in the

workplace:
Porn detection identifies and removes

inappropriate materials and ensures the enterprise remains protected Removable Devices monitors, detects, actions and reports upon all activities on both the local and the extended network. Records the use of removable drives in addition to detailing which files were accessed or copied

COMPUTERIZED MONITORING IN THE WORKPLACE


Monitoring features that can be used in the

workplace:
Malware Detection detects malicious software
e.g. spyware, password crackers and utilities, browser hijackers and plugins, network management tools and sniffers, hacking utilities and tools, keystroke loggers and virus generators

IPR Copyright Theft reports on presence of

movie and music files download activity, internet activity, streaming activity and others

COMPUTERIZED MONITORING IN THE WORKPLACE


Monitoring features that can be used in the

workplace:

Reports of Instant Messaging and Peer-to-Peer

Activity Application Monitoring used for detailing productivity across the enterprise, analyzing work patterns and practices, highlighting areas of risk and potential liability, detecting unlicensed or non-approved software, enforcement of company policies and determining which applications are used and which are not

POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF EMPLOYEE MONITORING


Secure network and workplace Protection from illegal activities Avoidance of Employee Sabotage and/or

Espionage Effective rewards and incentives Objective and factual measurement

POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF EMPLOYEE MONITORING


Eliminates rampant waste Easy assistance in troubleshooting and

fine-tuning of a system Streamlines job design Fair proportion of workloads Effective evaluation

NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF EMPLOYEE MONITORING


Undermines trust Increases competition Increases stress Reduces autonomy Focuses on quantity of work

NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF EMPLOYEE MONITORING


Quality of work may deteriorate Morale declines

Code of Ethics to Control the Use of Computerized Monitoring


1.) Apply to monitoring the same protection that applies to pre-enrollment background checks, that is, permit only information to be collected which is directly relevant to the job

Forester and Morrison 1994

Code of Ethics to Control the Use of Computerized Monitoring


2.) Requiring employers to provide employees with advance notice of the introduction of monitoring as well as appropriate mechanisms for appeal

Forester and Morrison 1994

Code of Ethics to Control the Use of Computerized Monitoring


3.) Requiring people to verify machineproduced information before using it to evaluate employees

Forester and Morrison 1994

Code of Ethics to Control the Use of Computerized Monitoring


4.) Providing workers with access to the information themselves and providing mechanisms for monetary redress for employees whose rights are violated or who are victims of erroneous information generated by monitoring systems

Forester and Morrison 1994

Code of Ethics to Control the Use of Computerized Monitoring


5.) Applying a statute of limitations on data from monitoring. The older the data, the less potential relevance and the greater the difficulty employees have in challenging it.

Forester and Morrison 1994

TELECOMMUTING
also called teleworking the use of telecommunications and Internet

technologies to work outside the traditional office or workplace, usually at home on in a mobile situation also dubbed working from anywhere enabled people in organizations to work across large distances and across different time zones

TELECOMMUTING
virtual organizations
organizations whose members work almost

entirely through telecommunications, with occasional face-to-face meetings

TELECOMMUTING
Factors Affecting the Future of

Telecommuting:
availability of bandwidth and infrastructure in a

given country social methodologies for balancing work and work freedom perceived values and economies in telecommuting opportunities and need for working collaboratively across large distances, including globally

TELECOMMUTING
Benefits of Telecommuting:
Reduction of office space required for employees Increased productivity Reduction in absenteeism Improved morale

Improved recruitment

Benefits to the environment Lower costs for the worker


Quinn, 2004

TELECOMMUTING
Benefits of Telecommuting:
Health Benefits: Reduced spread of communicable diseases Reduction in stress-related illnesses Reduced production of pollutants that lead to increased health problems Improved access to individual health needs

Quinn, 2004

TELECOMMUTING
Drawbacks of Telecommuting:
Less camaraderie and social interaction with

colleagues Intrusion of the workplace home setting, thus a difficulty in defining concrete working hours Threat to management control of worker autonomy Lack of face-to-face interaction with customers at the workplace Security Issues
Quinn, 2004

TELECOMMUTING
Drawbacks of Telecommuting:
Difficulty of scheduling team meetings Lack of visibility with management Lack of support for the office worker from the

remote worker Teleworker feeling a need to be always available to prove that they are working Isolation socially, no stimulation of ideas, peer support or technical support Tendency to work longer hours
Quinn, 2004

End of Presentation