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Presented by: Chandra bhan prajapati 2008AMD2934

The casting process is subdivided into two distinct subgroups: 1 - Expendable mold casting
(sand, plastic, shell, and investment (lost-wax technique) mouldings.)

2 - Nonexpendable mold casting

(permanent, die, centrifugal, and continuous casting).

Classification of die casting: (a)Gravity Die Casting (also called permanent mould process)
(b)Pressure Die Casting

Die Casting Process Flow

(Image courtesy: wiki)

[Pressure-die casting]

[ pressure die Casting Techniques]

[Die cast Part of automobile]

[Die casting Fence fittings]

(Image courtesy: wiki)

There are two basic types of die casting machines: (1)hot-chamber machines (2) cold-chamber machines

(Hot Die Casting machine)

(Image courtesy: wiki)

cold-die-casting machine
(Image courtesy: wiki)

Table : Capabilities of major casting processes

Attribute/proc ess Max. size sand Several tons >0.6 mm >200 rms >6 mm Any no. investment Upto 20 kg Gravity die Upto 50 kg Pressure die Upto 8 kg

Dim. tolerance
Surface finish Min. thickness Economic quantity

>0.1 mm
>60 rms >1.5 mm >100

>0.4 mm
>150 rms >4.5 mm >500

>.05 mm
>30 rms >0.8 mm >2500

( Cooling Curve for casting) (Image courtesy: wiki)

Chvorinov's rule:

The local solidification time can be calculated using Chvorinov's rule, which is:


(Intermediate cooling rates from melt result in a dendritic microstructure.

(Image courtesy: wiki)

Minimum wall thicknesses and minimum draft angles for die casting are :


Min. Thickness mm (in)

Min. Draft Angle ()

Aluminum alloys

0.9 mm


Zinc alloys

0.6 mm


Copper alloys (Brass)

1.25 mm


Die casting materials:

Zinc: the easiest alloy to cast; high ductility; high impact strength; easily plated; economical for small parts; promotes long die life. Aluminum: lightweight; high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls;.
Magnesium: the easiest alloy to machine; excellent strengthto-weight ratio; lightest alloy commonly die cast. Copper: high hardness; high corrosion resistance; highest mechanical properties of alloys die cast; excellent wear resistance.

Common aluminum alloys for die casting are summarized as fol




Tensile Strength MPa (ksi)


AA 380 (UNS A03800)

8.5 %

3.5 %

324 (47)

Fair easy to fill

AA 384 (UNS A03840)

11 %


331 (48)

Easy to fill

AA 386 (UNS A03860)

9.5 %

0.6 %

317 (46)

Good corrosion resistance

AA 390 (UNS A03900)

17 %

4.5 %

283 (41)

Good wear resistance

Excellent dimensional accuracy Smooth cast surfaces (12.5 m rms). Thinner walls can be cast Inserts can be cast-in (such as threaded inserts, heating elements ) Reduces or eliminates secondary machining operations. Rapid production rates. tensile strength as high as 415 MPa .

Casting weight must be between 30 grams and 10 kg Casting must be smaller than 600 mm High initial cost. Limited to high-fluidity metals. A certain amount of porosity is common. Thickest section should be less than 13 mm A large production volume is needed to make this an economical .