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The Four (4) Phases of Educational
 Identification of Objectives.- This is a logical
approach to human activities. In learning , setting of
goals and objectives can serve as a guide to the type
and nature of learning activities as well as
methodologies to be used.
Things to Remember!
 First look into the sources of objectives based on the
topic and the need of the student.
 Second formulate your General and Specific
objectives. Be sure that the 3 domain are present
namely the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor.
2. Design of Learning experiences. – It
is important that the Teacher
individualizes his objectives and
sequence his learning activities.
 Sequence and Strategies
 Modes and Media
The Teachers may ask the following questions as he
chooses teaching strategies:
 Should I use the discovery or expository approach?
 Which would be more effective: individualized or group
learning activity?
 How can time be spent in presenting each learning
 How can student’s accomplishments be assessed at the
end of the lesson?
 What teaching style would be best suited for the subject
matter and objectives?
Media and materials must be appropriate
for the learning experiences and methods,
keeping in mind the limitations of the
budget, personnel, facilities, equipment,
and time constraint.
The following questions may be asked:
should I use graphics? written symbols?
recorded sounds? Multimedia?
3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the learning
experiences. – The evaluative process should
bear in mind the need for effective construction
and use of evaluative devices.
a.) Observation devices: checklist, rating scales,
anecdotal records, and the behavioral journal.
b.) self-report instruments, inventories,
questionnaires and ranking devices.
c.) test items: essay and objective types.
4. Improvement of the learning experiences
– In order to improve the learning
experiences we may consider the
formulation of the objectives.
 Thesum total of the technical means
employed to meet the material needs of a
 Applied science.
 To divest or deprive of human qualities or
 To make abstract or mechanical.
Human mechanization is described by
some as the process by which people are
treated mechanically, that is without giving
thought to what is going on inside them. A
communication specialist Phil Lange
named six (6) ways that human beings , in
this case student-learners in schools, are
treated mechanically:
1. We turn them on and off whenever it
suits our fancy.
2. No explanation is offered on why and
what they do.
3. Their plans and future are unheard.
4. All work and no play.
5. Their human worth is judged only by the
quality of their products.
6. Human empathy is absent.
The teacher-communicator can introduce
humanism by:
2. Interaction between communicators/teacher
and listener/student.
3. Self evaluation or reflection by listener/student.
4. Dialogue or interchange between
communicator and listener.
5. Regular meeting and consultations.
S – Specific
 M – Measurable
 A – Attainable
 R – Result-Oriented
 T – Time Bound