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VISUAL LITERACY

AND
VISUAL DESIGN
WHAT ARE
VISUALS?
Visuals – are materials that have an effect
on the sense of sight. These are
communication devices that serve as
concrete referents to the spoken or written
word.
Sight 83 %
Hearing10 %
Smell 4%

Taste 1%

Touch 2%
USES OF VISUALS
1.Visuals can help the learners to
remember
2.theVisuals can help motivate
original ideas.
students to
learn by attracting and maintaining
their
3 . Often complicated information and
attention.
those
ideas that are difficult to remember
can be
Visuals can
4.simplified helpappropriate
using the learners
visuals
understand
certain concepts better.
DECODING
- includes reading visuals accurately,
understanding and relating the elements of
a visual, being able to translate from visual
to verbal and vice versa, and appreciating
the aesthetics of visual.
ENCODING
- ability to write or encode visuals as a
tool for communication. it includes
using the tools of visual media to
communicate effectively with others and
express one’s self through visuals.
VISUAL
LITERACY
“the ability to ‘read,’ interpret, and
understand information presented in
pictorial
“a group ofor graphic images”
competencies that allows
humans to
discriminate and interpret the visible
action,
objects, and/or symbols, natural or
constructed,
“an that they encounter
organizing in the environment”
force in promoting understanding,
retention, and recall of so many academic concepts
with which students must contend”
“the active reconstruction of past visual
experience with incoming visual messages
to obtain meaning with the emphasis on the
action by the learner to create recognition”

“is a learned ability to interpret visual


messages accurately and to create such
messages”
VISUAL DESIGN

Four Basic Goals of Visual Design


• Ensure legibility of words and pictures in
your visual
• Reduce the effort needed in interpreting
message
• Increase active engagement of viewer
with message
• Focus attention on the most important
parts of message
Considerations in Designing
Visuals
1.
Elements
• Lettering style (font type) – There are
two types of font, serif and san-serif.
For instructional purposes, a san-serif
lettering styles such as Arial, or simple
serif style like Times New Roman is
recommended. It is also acceptable to
use the serif style in the main text,
and serif and san-serif for headings.
Avoid using fancy font styles which
are difficult to read.
Example
• Technology San-serif
fonts
• Technology Fonts with serifs
• Technology Script fonts
• Technology Crazy fonts
• Technology Old English Fonts
Number of lettering styles - Keep this
to no
more than two in any static display
(chart,
bulletin board) or a series of related
visuals
(set of transparencies or computer
presentation
slides), and make sure that the two font
types
harmonize with each other. If variations of
a
Use of capitals - Short headlines or titles
of no
more than six words may be written in all
capitals (upper case). However, for
anything
longer than that, best legibility is
achieved by
using lower case lettering for all words,
adding capitals only where normally
required.
• Lettering color - Contrast lettering
with the background. This makes the
words easy to see and read. This
contrasting technique is also useful
when you want to emphasize certain
information in your visual.

• Lettering size - Choose a lettering size


that allows good visibility even by the
student seated right at the back of the
classroom.
• Spacing between letters - If you are
using a computer to generate the text, it
will automatically space the letters in
every word. However, if you need to
space the letters yourself, you should
space them optically rather than
mechanically.

Example

TEACH Mechanical Spacing

TEACH Optical Spacing


• Spacing between lines – If lines of text
are
too close together, they tend to be blur
out at
a distance, while lines too far apart will
seem
disjoint. If the paragraph of text is
computer-
generated, a one-a-half line spacing
may be
the best choice.

• Number of lines – This depends on the


type
2. PATTERN
• Alignment of elements – Use this to
show
clear visual relationships between the
main
elements in the visual. Align related
elements
along the same horizontal or vertical
lines.

• Shape – The visual and verbal elements


can
• Balance - A sense of balance is
achieved
when the `weight' of the elements in a
visual is equally distributed on each
side of
its vertical or horizontal axis.

• Style - Choose a design style which


matches your audience. But as far as
possible, choose an uncluttered
primary-
color design style rather than one filled
• Color scheme - Select colors that
produce harmony rather than
annoyance. You may choose to use
complementary colors (colors that lie
directly opposite on the color wheel,
e.g., red-green, blue-orange, yellow-
violet), but make sure that they are not
of the same intensity or else dissonance
instead of harmony may result.
Analogous colors e.g. blue and green
usually form pleasing harmonious
combinations.
• Color appeal - Consider the `emotional'
impact
of colors in your choice. Blue ,green and
violet
are considered `cool' colors, while red
and
orange are termed `warm' colors.
Specifically,
red means danger or action, orange –
warmth
or energy, blue - aloofness or clarity,
3. ARRANGEMENT

Once you have established the


underlying
pattern of your visual you will need to
arrange the elements within the
pattern.
You can use the principle of proximity
by
placing related elements close
together,
and unrelated items far
• Directional such as arrows, are devices
for
directing the viewer's attention to a
particular
part of the visual, or to `read' the visual
in a
particular sequence. Other examples for
directing attention are bolding of text,
use of
bullets, change of size, use of a
contrasting
VISUAL DESIGN ISSUES IN COMPUTER-BASED
PRESENTATION
• Visual Effects
Text and graphic animations
Transitional effects

Use of Color
• Color guidelines
Backgroun Graphs & Text Highlights
d
White Dark blue Red, orange
Light gray Blue, green, black Red
Blue Light yellow, white Yellow, red
Light blue Dark blue, dark green Red, orange
Light Violet, brown Red
yellow
Basic Guidelines

Do’s for Computer-based


presentation
• Do use landscape
• Do use san-serif types of fonts
• Do leave extra space between
paragraph
• Do use left justification
• Do use graphics to focus on an
important area
• Do consider the use of graphics,
animations
and video clips when it is difficult to
describe
something verbally.
• Do have plenty of empty space on a
screen.
• Do eliminate distracting backgrounds.
• Do have consistency in the design.
Don'ts for computer-based
presentation
• Don't use `portrait' (tall) orientation.
• Don't put too much information on one
screen display.
• Don't use too much or too little
highlighting.
• Don't use decorative clip art to
confuse the message
• Don’t use poor quality originals
scanning pictures
• Don't use all capital letters.
• Don't split words at the end of a line
or
hyphenate them.
• Don't break a sentence across
screens.
orientation.
• Don't use graphics, animations or
audio
without a good purpose.
• Don't use special visual effects (such
as
flying letters, words or objects)