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Lightning

Surge Protection

And
Earthing Arrangment
WHY
Lightening And Surge Protection
• Introduction of electronic based
equipments-IPS,DAC ,SSI,AFTC,OFC etc.
• These and are low voltage device and
depends on electric supply hence
vulnerable to transient over voltages on
power lines
• Further with compact design and reduction
of interspacing between components
the probabilty has increased.
Types of surges
• Lightening Energy: Releasing mega-joules of
energy

• Power Line Surges: Electrical machinery,


appliances and power company’s operating
equipment. air conditioners, generators,
transformers and pumps etc.

• Indirect Strikes: Galvanic, inductive and capacitive


couplings between sensitive quipment and the
lightening effected
HOW TO PROTECT

•Filter and clamp the transient pulses at the


point of power entry to the installation

• Reducing over voltage by stages to a


harmless level before it reach the terminal device
and cause damage.
TYPICAL REQUIREMENT OF SURGE FILTER
• It should be able to carry full load current in series
with the incoming mains power supply.

• It should be able to cater for the levels of energy


experienced in lightning discharges

• It should be able to cater multiple lightning events


which may occur within milliseconds of the initial
discharge.

• It should be able to limit the energy levels between


phase & neutral and neutral & ground respectively.
PROTECTION LEVELS
• CLASS “A” PROTECTION –to protect
against direct strike

• CLASS “B” PROTECTION

• CLASS “C” PROTECTION

• CLASS “D” PROTECTION


CLASS B PROTECTION
•First stage of protection at mains distribution
panel

•Based on self restoring spark gap


technology

•Handle lightning current pulses of 10/350 µ s

•Provided between both Phase to neutral and


Neutral To Earth
CLASS C PROTECTION

•Based on fast responsive MOV

•Provided between Phase and Neutral


CLASS D PROTECTION

All external data/signaling (AC/DC) lines


connected to electronic equipment at either
end should be protected by using Class “D”
device which consists of a combination of
MOVs and GD tube
EARTHING
Requirement for functioning of lightning
protection is a correctly installed
equipotential bonding system supplemented
with arresters
Conventional method
• G.I pipe buried in the ground prepared by layers
using charcoal and salt

• Connecting Earth Rod to Equipment by GI wire

• Connections made by using ordinary nut bolts


DRAWBACKS
• Periodical pouring of Water
• Corrosion of GI pipe due to salts.
• Consumption of Salt as it is soluble.
• This type of earth gives earth resistance of upto
10 Ohm
• Less dissipation of fault current with increase in
resistance
• Recurring cost of maint.
Latest technique of Earthing
• Use of Copper bonded steel rod with high tensile strength.(250micron
cu,15mmdia)

-These rods are long life as they don,t corrode and offer less resistance

• USE of Earth enhancing compound (GEM)in place of salt and charcoal


.

- This compound when in contact with the earth produces a highly


conductive non corrosive gel which interacts with the earth
homogenously with all types of soil. This helps the earthing electrode
to retain moisture.Higher doses may be necessary for optimum results
in high resistance soil or rocky areas.

- Low resistivity is maintained due to this material


• Use of Copper tapes/Cadmium bronze wires/Copper
tapes for interconnection

- This offer better conductivity

• Making connection by Exothermic welding

-This ensures proper connection


.
Installation

Earth Pit
- To be prepared by digging hole of 8’

- Insert Earth Rod by Augur upto 11’

- Fill up GEM
RING EARTH BAR

• All Rooms shall be provided with Copper Tape


of 25X6x300 with holes
• The tape shall be connected to the wall by
insulators of 6kv at 60mm ht
• The relay racks /equipment to be connected to
Above Copper Tape by 6SQMM Cu wire using
stainless steal Nut BOLTS
• All SUCH REBs shall be connected my Cu Tape
of size 25X3
INTER CONNECTIONS
• The Ground Rod Shall Be provided with 25x6X300 strip
exothermically welded to it.
• The REB shall be connected to Earth Rod by laying
Cadmium Bronze wire (3/16”)which shall be
exothermically welded to copper tape provided on
Ground Rod
• The above wire shall be laid in trench of 12”depth width
of 1’ filled with GEM
• In case earth resistance is not achieved with single earth
more earth pits shall be made with distance not more
than 2L
• Earth pits shall be interconnected in same way as that
for connection between Earth Pit and REB
A Provision of maintenance free Single earth
Schedule A – Supply portion Unit Rate QTY AMT

1 Supply of basic earthing kit – 1 set consisting of a. Earth electrodes of Set 8000 1 8000
copper clad steel alloy of ¾ inch dia & copper thickness of min of 10 mit
,10ft long or 2 no. 6 ft long b. thread less compressed type coupler of
copper clad steel alloy with copper thickness of min 10 mit -01if 6 ft rod is
supplied c. RDSO approved earth enhancing compound in 10 kg pack -1 no
d. Copper tape of 25 mmx3mmx150mm to terminate on earth electrode.-
1N0.

2 Copper tape of 25 mmx6mmx150mm to act as REB- NO 1170 4 4680

3 Supply of insulated cadmium bronze cable of 3/16” to RDSO MTR 225 40 9000
spec.RDSO/SPN/178/2003 to connect equipotential bus bar in Relay room
and master earth electrode in pair for redundancy.
4 Supply of insulated copper cable of 6 sqmm mtr 25 58 1450

Total A 23130

Schedule B – Labour portion


1 Installation of unit earth consisting of a.digging the earth to the required NO 1 6000 6000
depth b. Insertion of 1/2 nos electrodes c. Joining electrodes using
coupler(if 6ft rod) d. Filling of earth enhancing compound Provision of
exothermic weld connection on copper tape of 25mmx3mmx150mm to the
earth electrode(weld material tools & fixtures required for the weld to be
arranged by the contractor) -1 no.provision of exothermic weld connections
one to connect the cadmium bronze cable to the copper tape welded to the
earth electrode and another to the copper tape to be fixed inside the
equipment /relay rack/apparatus room(fixtures for mounting the copper tape
inside the relay room, weld materials and tools & fixtures for the weld shall
be arranged by the contractor.g. electrode termination in a concrete sink
and routing the cadmium cable to bus bar in equipment room Various REB
and other appratus in room to be joined by 6sq mm cu wire

TOTAL A+B 29130


B Provision of maintenance free Ring earth (3 earth pit)
Schedule A – Supply portion Unit Rate QTY AMT

1 Supply of basic earthing kit – 1 set consisting of a. Earth electrodes of copper clad steel alloy of ¾ Set 8000 3 24000
inch dia & copper thickness of min of 10 mit ,10ft long or 2 no. 6 ft long b. thread less compressed
type coupler of copper clad steel alloy with copper thickness of min 10 mit -01if 6 ft rod is supplied c.
RDSO approved earth enhancing compound in 10 kg pack -1 no d. Copper tape of 25
mmx3mmx150mm to terminate on earth electrode.-1N0.

2 Copper tape of 25 mmx6mmx150mm to act as REB- NO 1170 4 4680

3 Supply of insulated cadmium bronze cable of 3/16” to RDSO spec.RDSO/SPN/178/2003 to connect MTR 225 40 9000
equipotential bus bar in Relay room and master earth electrode in pair for redundancy.

4 Supply of Copper tape of 25 mmx3mmmm to connect two earth pits MTR 30 540 16200

5 RDSO approved earth enhancing compound in 10 kg pack - NO 3 2500 7500

6 Supply of insulated copper cable of 6 sqmm mtr 25 58 1450

Total A 62830

Schedule B – Labour portion

Installation of unit earth(3no) consisting of a.digging the earth to the required depth b. Insertion of 1/2 NO 1 10000 10000
nos electrodes c. Joining electrodes using coupler(if 6ft rod) d. Filling of earth enhancing compound
,Connecting adjacent earth pits by copper tape of 25x3 by making requisite exothermic
connectionsProvision of exothermic weld connection on copper tape of 25mmx3mmx150mm to the
earth electrode(weld material tools & fixtures required for the weld to be arranged by the contractor)
-2 no.provision of exothermic weld connections one to connect the cadmium bronze cable to the
copper tape welded to the earth electrode and another to the copper tape to be fixed inside the
equipment /relay rack/apparatus room(fixtures for mounting the copper tape inside the relay room,
weld materials and tools & fixtures for the weld shall be arranged by the contractor.g. electrode
termination in a concrete sink and routing the cadmium cable to bus bar in equipment roomVarious
REB and other appratus in room to be joined by 6sq mm cu wire

72830
THANK YOU

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