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2 CHANNEL WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING SYSTEMS

Aim:
simulating two 2- channel WDM System and compute Bit error rate in different scenarios

Software used:
Optsim

Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is a fiber-optic transmission technique that employs light wavelengths to transmit data parallel-by-bit or serial-by-character.

WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

COARSE WDM (C-WDM)

DENSE WDM (D-WDM)

Both CWDM and DWDM are enhanced versions of WDM they support more channels than legacy WDM. But they are still WDM.
CWDM allows 8 channels. DWDM allows 16 and above

LINEAR AND NON LINEAR EFFECTS SEEN IN WDM


Two general types of dispersion affect DWDM systems. 1. Chromatic Dispersion, is linear 2. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), is nonlinear. Linear effects such as attenuation and dispersion can be compensated, but nonlinear effects accumulate.

2-CHANNEL WDM :10 Gbps link FOR 10km

Specificatons:
1) Data source generate data of Bit rate 10 Gbps. 2) Two Direct modulated lasers modulated binary modulation format like NRZ DM laser 1 have central emission frequency at 1550nm, optical power 3dBm & FWHM line width 10 MHz. DM Laser 2 have central emission frequency at 1310 nm, optcal power 3dBm & FWHM line width 10 MHz. 3) Multiplexer is used to combine the signals. 4) single mode optical fiber of 10 km long is used.

5) Two Gaussian filters are used after the fiber. Optical filter 1 is centered at 1550nm,-3dB,and BW of 10 GHz. Optical filter 2 is centered at 1310nm,-3dB,and BW of 10 GHz. 6) Optical Power Normalisers are used which average the optical power and send it to the Compound receiver. 7) Compound receiver consists of photodetectors, pre-amplifiers,filters. Photodetectors are used at receiver side to convert optical signal into electrical signal. Bessel electrical filter is used in the compound receiver. Bessel electrical filter is low pass type, having number of poles 5,bandwidth as 10 GHz.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS


EYE DIAGRAM AFTER 10km FOR 10 Gbps LINK FOR UPPER CHANNEL AT 1550 nm

EYE DIAGRAM AFTER 10km FOR 10 Gbps LINK FOR LOWER CHANNEL AT 1310 nm

FOR THE ABOVE SIMULATED SYSTEM,BER IS COMPUTED.THE RESULTS ARE SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE.

S.NO

DISTANCE TYPE OF LASER

DATA RATE

OPERATING WAVELENGTH

BIT ERROR RATE(BER)

1. 2.

10km 10km

DM DM

10Gbps 10Gbps

1550nm 1310nm

9.8125x10-7 5.4654x10-11

From the table it is seen that at 1310nm,the BER is better than the BER at 1550nm.This means that lower channel transmits signal with less attenuation than the upper channel which has suffered from distortion effects like dispersion, and non linear effects like SRS, SBS,FWM,etc and so higher bit rate.

. 2-CHANNEL WDM :10 Gbps link FOR 40km

Specificatons:
1) Data source generate data of Bit rate 10 Gbps. 2) Two Continuous Wave (CW)semiconductor lasers externally modulated by binary modulation format like NRZ CW laser 1 have central emission frequency at 1550nm, optical power 3dBm & FWHM line width 10 MHz. CW Laser 2 have central emission frequency at 1310 nm, optical power 3dBm & FWHM line width 10 MHz. Here external modulation is carried out by amplitude Dual arm Mach Zehnder modulator .Mach Zehnder modulator has maximum transmissivity ,offset voltage of 0.5V & extinction ratio of 20dB 3) Multiplexer is used to combine the signals. 4) single mode optical fiber of 40 km long is used.

5) Two Gaussian filters are used after the fiber. Optical filter 1 is centered at 1550nm,-3dB,and BW of 10 GHz. Optical filter 2 is centered at 1310nm,-3dB,and BW of 10 GHz. 6) Optical Power Normalisers are used which average the optical power and send it to the Compound receiver. 7) Compound receiver consists of photodetectors, pre-amplifiers,filters. Photodetectors are used at receiver side to convert optical signal into electrical signal. Bessel electrical filter is used in the compound receiver. Bessel electrical filter is low pass type, having number of poles 5,bandwidth as 10 GHz.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS


S.NO DISTANCE TYPE OF LASER DATA RATE OPERATING BIT ERROR WAVELENGTH RATE(BER) 1550nm 5.3190x10-35

1.

40km

CW,EXTERNAL 10Gbps MODULATION CW,EXTERNAL 10Gbps MODULATION

2.

40km

1310nm

8.8691x10-25

From the table it is seen that at 1550nm,the BER is better than the BER at 1310nm.Hence, the upper channel performs better.

. 2-CHANNEL WDM :10 Gbps link FOR 100km

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS


EYE DIAGRAM AFTER 100km FOR 10 Gbps LINK FOR UPPER CHANNEL AT 1550 nm

EYE DIAGRAM AFTER 100km FOR 10 Gbps LINK FOR LOWER CHANNEL AT 1310 nm

FOR THE ABOVE SIMULATED SYSTEM,BER IS COMPUTED.THE RESULTS ARE SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE.
S.NO DISTANCE TYPE OF LASER CW,EXTERNAL MODULATION CW,EXTERNAL MODULATION DATA RATE 10Gbps OPERATING BIT ERROR WAVELENGTH RATE(BER) 1550nm 2.322x10-2

1.

100km

2.

100km

10Gbps

1310nm

6.6208x10-2

From the table it is seen that at 1550nm and at 1310nm, the BER is very very poor and it is an inefficient transmission. The signal is attenuated and affected by the non linear effects which are clearly visible from eye diagram where the eye is poorly open.The performance can be improved if optical power boosters like EDFA are used.

CONCLUSION
The principle of WDM, development of WDM technology, its advantages and the linear and non linear effects seen in WDM systems are discussed briefly. Thus the two channel WDM systems are designed intuitively and the simulations are carried out and the performance of the systems are analyzed with the eye diagrams and with the obtained BER.