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Main points of Interlanguage, Krashen, and Universal Grammar

What is Interlanguage (IL)?

Larry Selinker (1972)

Intermediate states (or intermediate

grammars) of a learners language as it moves toward the target L2. Creative process, driven by inner forces and interaction, and influenced by L1 and input from the target language.

Characteristics of Interlanguage
Systematic (governed by rules and by

students L1) Dynamic (changes frequently) Variable (based on context and situation) Reduced system (form)- the interlanguage is less complex grammatically in form Reduced system (function)- used for a smaller range of communicative needs.

Differences in IL in L2 and L1
Language transfer

How the L2 is taught.

How learners approach learning L2.

Ways that learners try to communicate with

others in L2. Overgeneralization (rules are applied to broadly).

Cease learning a language before they reach

target language norms. This happens despite students receive L2 input and passage of time. More likely to happen among older L2 learners. Also depends on social identity and need to communicate

Issues with Fossilization

Should individuals be considered fossilized if They retain a foreign accent despite being fluent in the language? The students dont want to sound native

Should progress be measured against native-speaker norms?

Monitor Model (Krashen)

Language Acquisition Device (LAD)-

childrens innate knowledge and language. Collection of five hypotheses which have major claims and assumptions about learning a language

Krashens Five Hypotheses


Natural Order

Affective filter

Acquisition Learning
What is the difference between acquisition and learning? Acquisition- subconscious learning, not aware; involves the LAD Learning- conscious; what happens in the classroom.

What is learned is available only as a monitor, for purposes of editing or making changes in what has already been produced.

Natural Order
Acquire the rules of language in a predictable order.

Affective Filter
How one feels about the learning process.

Conscious learning is taking place. Input may not be processed if this is up. Lower their affective filter

Universal Grammar (UG)

Noam Chomsky

Language Acquisition is based on linguistic

competence (what learners know about the language) not on the use of the language. This knowledge is deeper than the input students get. (Innate)

Innate Knowledge
Competency in L1 come from the innate

knowledge that all students possess. Knowledge is also based on what all languages have. Innate knowledge= language faculty (physically represented in the brain)

Innate Knowledge
Children already have a rich system of

knowledge that they bring when are they learning L1. They are not learning UG; UG is present at birth, but this capacity is awaken with input. But, does this knowledge apply to individuals who are learning additional languages beyond childhood?

Principles and Parameters

Principles= the properties that ALL

languages possess. Parameters= variation amongst the different languages.

Children are able to interpret the input they

receive and out comes the appropriate grammar.

UG and L2
What is the initial state in L2? (Starting

point) What is the nature of interlanguage and how does it change over time? What is the final state in SLA?

Initial State
Learners already have knowledge of L1

when L2 acquisition begins. L1 knowledge is transferred, but what transfers and what to degree depends on: -Any similarities between L1 and L2? -Why and how the person is learning L2?

Initial State (continued)

When L1 and L2 settings are the same,

positive transfer happens. When L1 and L2 settings are different, negative transfer or interference occurs.

Final State
All learners may not have the same degree

of access to UG. Different relationships between L1 and L2 may result in negative transfer or interference. Some learners may receive different input (in terms of quality).

Functional Approaches
Emphasize the content of what is being

produced Views language as a form of communication rather than rules.

Other Main Points of Functionalism

Focus is on the use of language in real

situations (performance) as well as underlying knowledge (competence). Purpose of language is communication, and to develop that knowledge requires communicative use. Study how language is used in interaction.