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INTRODUCTION TO DRY GAS SEALS

Mark Slotnick/Sales Engineer

Introduction to DGS
Compressor shaft sealing Dry gas seal history Dry gas seal features and operation Operating principals Dry gas seal arrangements Barrier seals

Compressor Shaft Sealing

Compressor Shaft Sealing

Compressor shaft sealing


To isolate bearing cavity from the process cavity: to prevent process gas from entering the atmosphere to prevent bearing oil contamination of the process

Compressor Shaft Sealing-Oil Ring


Seal and Lube Oil System with Buffer Gas
Lube Oil Seal Oil Buffer Gas

Journal Bearing Seal & Lube Oil

Carbon Seal Seal Oil and Buffer Gas

Compressor Shaft Sealing-Oil Ring


Power loss due to oil shear
Power loss due to seal oil pump and fans

High seal gas decompression / venting and booster blowdowns rates- environmental considerations / loss of product Product contamination / pipe oil contamination

Compressor Shaft Sealing-Oil Ring


High cost of maintenance and downtime
Fire hazards associated with wet oil systems

High cost of oil disposal and spill cleanups environmental protection

Dry Gas Seal History

Gas seal history


1968 1975 First patent First field applications

Gas seal history


1968 1975 1981 1985 1985 1991 First patent First field applications First beam type compressor First steam turbine First Mag brg / Dry seal Bi-directional seal

Gas seal history


1968 1975 1981 1985 1985 1991 1992 First patent First field applications First beam type compressor First steam turbine First Mag brg / Dry seal Bi-directional seal XP seal - 123 to 200 bar

Gas seal history


1968 1975 1981 1985 1985 1991 1992 1994 First patent First field applications First beam type compressor First steam turbine First Mag brg / Dry seal Bi-directional seal XP seal - 123 to 200 bar Type 82 barrier seal

Worlds Largest Gas Seal (330mm)

Gas seal history


1968 1975 1981 1985 1985 1991 1992 1994 1997 1997 1997 First patent First field applications First beam type compressor First steam turbine First Mag brg / Dry seal Bi-directional seal XP seal - 123 to 200 bar Type 82 barrier seal introduced Worlds Largest 330mm Gas Seal Cranite 2000 500 bar test rig

Gas seal history


1968 1975 1981 1985 1985 1991 1992 1994 1997 1997 1997 1998 2000 First patent First field applications First beam type compressor First steam turbine First Mag brg / Dry seal Bi-directional seal XP seal - 123 to 200 bar Type 82 barrier seal introduced Worlds Largest 330mm Gas Seal Cranite 2000 500 bar test rig 100,000,000 operating hours exceeded First 5000 psig balance piston seal

Features and operation

Dry gas seal features


Reduces Capital Cost of New Installations Cartridge design simplifies installation and protects critical seal components Proven and reliable technology Over

180 Million Operation Hours


15,000 Cartridge Seals Installed

Dry gas seal features


Extremely low process gas leakage
Withstands rapid speed and pressure changes Theoretically, due to the non-contacting design feature, seal life can be considered unlimited

Dry gas seal features


Allowance for axial shaft shifts is normally + 0.125" Allowance for radial shaft shifts is normally +.025"
Capable of handling starts and stops at full pressure

Dry gas seal features


Eliminates Seal Oil Support System
Reduces Maintenance Costs Saves Energy

Prevents Oil Contamination

Dry gas seal features / operation Seal Reverse Rotation


Short periods of reverse rotation can be tolerated without damage but should be avoided
Bi-directional seal designs are available

Seal Reverse Pressurization


Not recommended

Seal Liquid Contamination


Can tolerate small amounts of liquid contamination, but should be avoided

Dry gas seal features / operation


Slow Roll/Turning Gear Does not adversely affect seal performance Vibration Seal will withstand vibration allowances of API 617 Compressor Wash Compressor cleaning can be performed provided seals are isolated by a buffer gas

Dry gas seal materials


Mating Ring Tungsten/Silicon Carbide Primary Ring Carbon/Cranite 2000 Hardware 410SS/316SS/Hasteloy/other Springs Hastelloy C

Operating principals

Operating principals
Spiral Groove Comparison

UNIDIRECTIONAL SPIRAL GROOVE

BIDIRECTIONAL SPIRAL GROOVE

Operating principals
LAND

OUTER
DIAMETER

SPIRAL GROOVE

GROOVE DIAMETER INNER DIAMETER

ROTATION RELATIVE TO PRIMARY RING

Operating principals
Direction of Rotation Gas is induced towards the center.

Sealing Dam

Gas is Compressed & Pressure increases to set Gap.

Operating principals
Direction of Rotation Gas is induced towards the center.

Sealing Dam

Gas is Compressed & Pressure increases to set Gap.

Operating principals
Normal Gap
FC = FO FC

FO OPENING FORCE

CLOSING FORCE
S P

Compression

Expansion

Spring Load + Hydrostatic

Gas Film Pressure Distribution

Operating principals
Increased Gap
FC >FO FC CLOSING FORCE S P FO OPENING FORCE

Spring Load + Hydrostatic

Gas Film Pressure Distribution

Operating principals
Reduced Gap
FC < FO FC CLOSING FORCE S P FO OPENING FORCE

Spring Load + Hydrostatic

Gas Film Pressure Distribution

Operating Principals
Non-Contacting Seal Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Stiffness

30

Stiffness (GN/m)

20

Combined Stiffness (Hydrostatic & Hydrodynamic)

10 Hydrostatic Stiffness Only

gap (mm)

Dry Gas Seal in Operation

C-STEADY Analysis

Seal arrangements

Dry gas seals: AT vs XP


28 AT SEAL 28 XP SEAL

PROCESS GAS SIDE

Polymer Rings

Carrier

PROCESS GAS SIDE

Dry gas seal arrangements


SINGLE SEAL
Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Bearings

Process Gas

Pressure: Up To 1800 PSIG Speed: Up To 660 Ft/Sec.


SERVICE:

Temperature: Gases:

-4 To +400F All

PLANT AIR AND NITROGEN SERVICE

DGS Arrangements - XP Single Seal


BARRIER GAS PRIMARY LEAKAGE SEALING GAS

BEARING CAVITY

SERVICE:

PLANT AIR AND NITROGEN SERVICE

PROCESS CAVITY

Dry gas seal arrangements


TANDEM SEAL
N2 Purge Secondary Vent Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Bearings

Process Gas

Pressure: Up To 1800 PSIG Speed: Up To 660 Ft/Sec. SERVICE:

Temperature: Gases:

-4 To +400F All

Natural Gas Pipeline Compressors and Process Gas Compressors

XP Tandem Seal
BARRIER GAS SECONDARY LEAKAGE PRIMARY LEAKAGE SEALING GAS

BEARING CAVITY

PROCESS CAVITY

Dry gas seal arrangements


TANDEM SEAL WITH INTERMEDIATE LABYRINTH
N2 Purge Secondary Vent N2 Purge Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Bearings

Process Gas

Pressure: Up To 1800 PSIG Speed: Up To 660 Ft/Sec. SERVICE:

Temperature: Gases:

-4 To +400F All

Applications Where Zero Process Leakage Is Required

XP Tandem Seal w/ Int. Labyrinth


BARRIER GAS (N2) SECONDARY LEAKAGE (N2) SEPARATION GAS (N2) PRIMARY LEAKAGE SEALING GAS

BEARING CAVITY

PROCESS CAVITY

DGS Arrangements - Double Seal


SEPARATION (N2)
LEAKAGE (N2) SEALING GAS (N2) BUFFER GAS (PROCESS)

BEARING CAVITY

Pressure: Speed:

Up To 400 PSIG Up To 660 Ft/Sec. SERVICE:

Temperature: Gases:

-4 To +400F HCL, Styrene,CO,Etc.

Toxic and Corrosive Environments

PROCESS CAVITY

Dry gas seals: AT vs. XP


Resists seal hang-up due to O-Ring friction
No explosive decompression problems associated with O-Rings Provides long shelf life

Applications are not compromised by chemical compatibility of the O-Ring

Dry gas seal arrangements


Pressure:
AT: XP: EXP: Up to 1800 PSIG Up to 2900 PSIG Up to 6500 PSIG -70 to +400F -100 to +600F

Temperature:
AT: XP, EXP:

Speed:
Up to 660 Ft./Sec.

Barrier seals

Barrier seals
Seal selection

Associated controls
Operation

Barrier seals - Selection


Carbon ring seal Split labyrinth Other

Barrier seals - Carbon ring


2ND STAGE LEAKAGE
GAS SEAL SIDE

BUFFER GAS

BEARING VENT

BEARING SIDE

Barrier seals - Split labyrinth


BUFFER GAS

2ND STAGE LEAKAGE

BEARING VENT

Barrier seals - comparison


Barrier Seal
N2 consumption < 1 scfm per side Seal life up to 5 years Floating seal prevents installation damage

Split Labyrinth
N2 consumption > 5 scfm per side Seal life indefinite (theoretically) Teeth can be damaged during installation