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Classification of bacteria

PREPARED BY: DEBASHIS DASGUPTA

CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA


Classification seeks to describe the diversity of bacterial species by naming and grouping organisms based on similarities.
Bacteria can be classified on the basis of cell structure ,cellular metabolism or on differences in cell components such as DNA, fatty acids ,pigments ,antigens and quinones Modern bacterial classification emphasizes molecular systematics, using genetic techniques such as GUANINE CYTOSINE ratio determination , GENOMEGENOME hybridisation. Classification of bacteria is determined by publication in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology and BERGEYS manual of systematic bacteriology. The International Committee on systematic bacteriology maintains international rules for the naming of bacteria and taxonomic categories and for their ranking in the INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE OF BACTERIA.

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The need to identify human pathogens is the major impetus for the development of techniques to classify bacteria. Specific group of bacteria is responsible for stabilisation of specific groups of wastes. Proper classification and idea about each group is essential for biodegradable waste stabilisation. Following taxonomic identifications enumeration and evaluation of the characteristics of the various organisms and structures present in a wastewater sample ,the inforamation can be used to draw conclusions regarding the treatment process .

Bacteria play an important role in many technological fields e.g. medicine , sewage control etc. The overall commercial worth of bacteria in these operations is immense. Classification categorizes different types of bacteria and provides a way to choose the most suitable bacteria type from technical and industrial point of view.
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CHARACTERS

GRAM STAINING REACTIONS


NUTRITIONAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

GENETIC METHODS IN TAXONOMY

r-RNA CATALOGUING

COLONY MORPHOLOGY

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING

USES OF COMPUTER

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GRAM STAINING::BACTERIA can be classified into two major groups such as GRAM POSITIVE and GRAM NEGATIVE bacteria based on GRAM STAINING REACTION. This empirical technique is used to differentiate bacteria based on the physical properties of the cell wall .

NUTRITIONAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS:The most commonly used biochemical tests include ability to utilize various sugars, production of acids and/or gas when grown in sugar media (which can be detected by a change in the colour of an Indicator),ability to produce indole, hydrogen sulfide etc. The presence of certain enzymes in growth media such as catalase , gelatinase , urease , lecthinase or lipase are frequently used in identification of bacteria.

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COLONY MORPHOLOGY::Bacteria show characteristic type of growth on solid media under appropriate cultural conditions and the colony morphology can be used in presumptive identification .

BACTERIOPHAGE used for typing susceptibility of each of a bacteriophages .

TYPING:This method is bacteria by testing the the culture to lysis by set of type ,lytic

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GENETIC METHODS IN TAXONOMY In recent years, the genetic characterisation of organisms has been substantially developed . One is the analysis of the base composition of DNA i.e. to determine the mole % GUANINE and CYTOSINE in DNA %(G+C) . The second is to determine the degree of similarity between two DNA samples by hybridization between DNA&DNA or DNA&RNA. r-RNA-CATALOGUING: Over the past decade, comparative analysis of the 16-s rRNA sequences has been used to explore prokaryotic phylogeny. GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY: In addition to the use of chemical, physical and physiological characteristics of bacteria ,GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY in recent years has also been used to detect specific cellular components in bacteria and for rapidly identifying bacteria. COMPUTER IN BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION: In recent years , the computer has been used as an aid in grouping bacteria and classifying them with a great degree of precision.

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1. ALKALIPHILIC 2.CAPNOPHILIC

10.OLIGOTROPHIC 11.OSMOPHILIC

3.ENDOLITHIC
4.HYPERTHERMOPHILIC 5.THERMOPHILIC 6.HYPOLITHIC 7.LIPOPHILIC

12.PSYCHROPHILIC
13.RADIORESISTANT 14.XEROPHILIC 15.HALOPHILIC 16.ACIDOPHILIC

8.METALOTOLERANT
9.MESOPHILIC

17.BAROPHILIC

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ALKALIPHILIC BACTERIA : The term alkaliphile is used for microrganisms that grow optimally or very well at pH values above 9, often between 10 and 12, but cannot grow or grow only slowly at the near neutral pH value of 6.5. Internal pH maintenance is achieved by both active and passive mechanisms in alkaliphilic bacteria .
ALKALIPHILIC

CAPNOPHILIC BACTERIA:Capnophiles are extremophile microrganisms which thrive in the presence of high concentration of CO2 or which require the presence of CO2 to survive.One example of a capnophile is the gram negative Aggregatibacter sp. found in the mouth . ENDOLITHIC BACTERIA:An endolith is an organism that lives inside the rock ,coral , animal cells or in the pores between the mineral grains of a rock. The microbiotope where these different endolithic species live together is called SLIME.

ENDOLITHIC

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HYPERTHERMOPHILIC

HYPERTHERMOPHILIC BACTERIA:A hyperthermoph-ile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments from 60: C upwards . Optimal temperature being 80: C. Hyperthermophiles are mainly within the domain archaea although some bacteria are also able to tolerate temperatures of around 100: C.

THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA: A thermophile is an organism that thrives at relatively high temperature . The order THERMOTOGALES forms a special class among bacteria as being the most thermophilic bacteria known at present .

HYPOLITHIC BACTERIA: In arctic and antactic ecology an hypholith is a photosynthetic organism that lives underneath rocks in climatically extreme deserts . About 94-95% of 850 opaque dolomitic rock samples of devon island were colonized by hypoliths , dominated chiefly by CYANOBACTERIA .
HYPOLITHIC

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LIPOPHILIC BACTERIA: Liphophilic bacteria are bacteria that may proliferate in lipids. They include lipophilic Corynebacterium .

BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS

METALOTOLERANT BACTERIA:These are organisms capable of tolerating high levels of dissolved heavy metals in solutions like cadmium , zinc ,copper, silver. Example-Flavobacterium .
FLAVOBACTERIUM

MESOPHILIC BACTERIA : Bacterial species involved in biodegradation which are more active in temperatures ranging from approximately 70:-90: F are termed mesophilic bacteria. EXAMPLE-Streptococcus pyrogenes .

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OLIGOTROPHIC BACTERIA:An oligotroph is an organism that can live in an environment that offers very low levels of nutrients.Pelagibacter eubique is the most abundant oligotrophic bacteria in the oceans with an estimated 10^27 individuals in total . OSMOPHILIC BACTERIA:These are bacteria that can withstand high osmotic pressure like high sugar concentration . They are characterized by low water activity . EXAMPLE-Enterobacter aerrogenes.

OSMOPHILIC BACTERIA

PSYCHROPHILIC BACTERIA:Psychrophilic bacteria utilise a wide variety of metabolic pathways including photosynthesis , chemoautotrophy and heterotrophy and form diverse communities . They are characterized by lipids and membranes chemically resistant to the stiffening caused by extreme cold .EXAMPLE-Psychrobacter Sp.

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Deinococcus radiodurans

RADIORESISTANT BACTERIA: . Deinococcus radiodurans is a highly radioresistant bacterium which can be used to precipitate out uranium from radioactive wastes and also to detoxify mercury and toluene in radioactive wastes . . Deinococcus radiodurans has been listed as the worlds toughest bacterium in the Guiness book of world records. It is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation , UV rays , desiccation , oxidizing and electrophilic agents. XEROPHILIC BACTERIA: Xerophiles are extremophilic organisms that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water , also known as water activity. . The common food preservation method of reducing water activities may not prevent the growth of xerophilic bacteria , often resulting in food spoilage .

XEROPHILIC BACTERIA

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HALOPHILIC BACTERIA: Halophiles are extremophile organisms that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt .

ACIDOPHILIC BACTERIA : Acidophiles are organisms that can withstand and even thrive in acidic environments where the pH values range from 1-5 Normally high acid levels destroy cells . EXAMPLE- T . acidophilus .

BAROPHILIC BACTERIA: Many microrganisms from the deep -sea display high-pressure-adapted - also described as barophilic or piezophilic growth characteristics. A large proportion of the barophilic bacteria currently in culture collections belong to a distinct subgroup of the genus Shewanella referred to as the barophile branch .EXAMPLE- Moritella yayanosii .

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BACTERIA
AEROBIC BACTERIA
OBLIGATE AEROBES

ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
OBLIGATE ANAEROBES

FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES

FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES

MICROAEROPHILES

AEROTOLERANT ANAEROBES

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MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS AN AEROBIC BACTERIA.

E.COLI A FACULTATIVE ANAEROBIC BACTERIA.

CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI- AN ANAEROBIC BACTERIA.

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BACTERIA
COCCUS
DIPLOCOCI

BACILLUS

SPIRILLA

VIBRIOS

DIPLOBACILLI
TETRACOCCI
STAPHYLOCOCCI

STREPTOBACILLI
SARCINAE

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BACTERIA *
HETEROTROPHIC
SAPROPHYTIC

AUTOTROPHIC
PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHEMOAUTOTROPHIC **
(DETAILED CLASSIFICATION ON NEXT SLIDE)

SYMBIOTIC PARASITIC

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(**)

CHEMOAUTROPHIC BACTERIA
IRON BACTERIA SULPHUR BACTERIA HYDROGEN BACTERIA METHANE BACTERIA CO2 FIXING BACTERIA CO FIXING BACTERIA N2 FIXING BACTERIA AMMONIFYING BACTERIA

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FLAGELLA : Flagella arises from the basal granules just inside the plasma membrane They contain a single kind of protein known as flagellin . On the basis of the number of flagella and their arrangement , the following types of bacteria are recognised : Atrichous : Bacteria without flagella .e.g. Corynaebacterium diptheriae . Monotrichous : Bacteria with single flagellum situated at one end of the cell only. e.g. Vibrio choleri. Lophotrichous :Bacteria with a group of flagella at one end of the cell only. e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Amphitrichous : Bacteria with one flagellum or more than one flagella at two ends of the cell. e.g. Spirillum volutans. Peritrichous : Bacteria with flagella all over the cell. e.g . Bacillus subtilis.

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A NEW OUTLOOK :GENETICALLY MODIFIED BACTERIA (GENE CLONING)


GENETICALLY MODIFIED BACTERIA : 1.CREATING ANTI-CANCER VACCINE : An experimental cancer vaccine using defanged listeria bacteria is showing great promise in animal studies . 2. MAKING GASOLINE FROM BACTERIA : Nowadays researches are being made to produce various genetically engineered bacteria (E.coli.) to custom produce hydrocarbon chains which can be made into fuel . 3.PREVENTING DENTAL CAVITIES : Genetically modified bacteria BCS3-L1 could theoretically prevent dental cavities by colonizing mouth.

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Oxidation Ponds - Oxidation ponds or stabilisation ponds and lagoons are used for simple secondary treatment in rural areas or industrial units. Heterotrophic bacteria degrade sewage organic matter within ponds produced cellular material and mineral products that support the growth of algae.Oxygen produced by algae compensate for the poor O2 conditions created by heterotrophic bacteria. Activated Sludge Process - Various microorganisms are involved in the activated sludge process. The most important one is the rod shaped bacterium, Zoogloea ramigera This organism is the main agent for flocculation.Among other bacterial forms the major genera are Pseudomonas, Nitrosomonas,Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Beggiatoa, Achromobacter etc. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion - Various physiological groups of bacteria occur in anaerobic sludge digestion tank. There are three different groups of bacteria occurring in this process: hydrolytic, fermentative and methanogenic bacteria. However, there is some overlap between the members of the first two groups.

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Oxidation pond, in which both aerobic and anaerobic activities are carried out in a single unit is called facultative pond. They are the most widely used oxidation ponds.

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CONCLUSION
Bacteria is one of the major equipments in medical , clinical, and environmental microbiology.

It is a major tool in biological treatment processes.It is used for proper management of liquid and solid wastes.
Classification of bacteria remains a field of

growing awareness due to the rapid progress of bacteriology ,wastewater engineering and the future prospect of environmental biochemistry.

REFERENCES
http://mic.sgmjornal.org/cgi/content/full/146 /3/5/51 Deming J W & Baross J A Applied environmental microbiology http://serc.carleton.edu/microlife

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