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1911- Frederick lamplough(UK) 1934-Arthur Fielden(US)General Motors two-stroke diesel engines 1994- Robert Bosch-1st electronic Unit Injector for commercial vehicles

It combines the injection pump and injection nozzle in one unit (Unit Injector).
This technology is also known as the PUMPNOZZLE SYSTEM

filling phase spill phase

injection phase
pressure reduction phase.

Fill phase
The constant stroke pump element on the
way up draws fuel from the supply duct in

to the chamber, and as long as

electric solenoid valve remains deenergized fuel line is open.

Spill phase
The pump element is on the way down,
and as long as solenoid valve remains de-energized the fuel line is open and fuel flows in through into the return duct.

Injection phase
The pump element is still on the way down, the solenoid is now energized and fuel line is now closed. The fuel can not pass back into return duct, and is now compressed by the plunger until pressure exceeds specific "opening" pressure, and the injector nozzle needle lifts, allowing fuel to be injected into the combustion chamber.

Pressure reduction phase

The plunger is still on its way down, the engine ECU de-energizes the solenoid when required quantity of fuel is delivered, the fuel valve

opens, fuel can flow back into return duct,

causing pressure drop, which in turn causes the injector nozzle needle to shut, hence no more fuel is injected.


start of an injection is controlled by the solenoid closing point.

injected fuel quantity is determined by the closing time, which is the length of time the solenoid remains closed.



solenoid operation is fully controlled by the engine ECU.

The first generation of UIS engines in commercial vehicles were capable of an injection pressure of 1,600 bar. The most recent stage of development of the second system generation achieves 1,800


Since 2004, the third generation has been on the market. This can realize injection pressures of up to 2,200 bar.

Applications: Power No.

Commercial vehicles

output: 80 kW/cylinder

of cylinders: 8 (more with 2 ECUs) Electronic, solenoid valve



pressure:1800 bar
fuel quantity: 400 mm3 per stroke


values better than those prescribed by the EU4 regulations. good degree of efficiency and high torque with low fuel consumption . This means more performance, lower fuel consumption and reduced exhaust and noise emissions.


was the worlds first manufacturer in 1995.

2.The feature of the UPS is that each engine cylinder has a unit pump of its own. 3.high-pressure pump with integrated solenoid valve, a short injection fuelinjection line, a pressure-delivery connection and a conventional nozzle-and-holder assembly.

1.pressure is built up by the engine camshaft. 2.The cam is shaped in such a way that the desired high pressure of the fuel is generated as quickly as possible in the so-called plunger chamber 3.solenoid valve determines both start and finish of injection. 4.The triggering duration determines the amount of fuel injected.

Applications: Power No.

Commercial vehicles

output: 80 kW/cylinder

of cylinders: 8 (more with 2 ECUs) Electronic, solenoid valve



pressure: 1600 bar / 1800 bar Injected fuel quantity: 150 mm3 / 400 mm3 per stroke

1.injection pressures of up to 2,200 bar. 2.Engine manufacturers save development costs. 3.damaged pump/valve units are simple to exchange. 4.performances of up to 92 kW per cylinder and with four to 18 cylinders. 5.A second control unit is required if the number of cylinders exceeds eight.


primary disadvantages of direct injection engines are complexity and cost. injection systems are more expensive