You are on page 1of 37

Department of

Management Science

Bahria Institute of
Management & Computer
Sciences.
Bahria University,
Islamabad, Pakistan.
Unit 4 - 6 1
Unit 4 - 6

S/W Applications in Business

COURSE CODE: IT-161


Credit Hours: 3 (2+1) --- 2 hours lecture
+ 2 hours Lab.
Dr. Mohammed Yousuf Khan

Unit 4 - 6 2
Microcomputer Parts
 Computer hardware
 The system unit, register size and bus size

 Speed of microprocessor

 Memory, bus, expansion slots and device

controller
 Input and output devices

 Computer software
 System software

 Programming languages

 Application software

Unit 4 - 6 3
Configuring a PC
A typical PC includes the following
components:
 A microcomputer (the processor & other
electronic components)
 A keyboard for input
 A point-and-draw device for input (mouse)
 A monitor for soft copy (output)
 A printer for hard-copy (output)
 A high capacity hard-disk device (storage)
 A CD device/floppy disk device
 A microphone/audio & video components/LAN
card/modem
 A set of speakers etc
Unit 4 - 6 4
The System Unit
 Represents
 Computer brain and computer memory
 Other useful parts or carrying out internal
operations
 It consists of
 Mother board
 Central processing unit (CPU) /
microprocessor

Unit 4 - 6 5
Mother Board / System
Board
 Mother board is the physical foundation
of the PC.
 Represents the main circuit board.
 Hosts.
Following are attached to a mother board.
 The computer’s central processing unit
(CPU).
 Support circuitry for I/O peripheral
devices.
 Data communication bus.
Unit 4 - 6 6
Mother Board (Continues
…)
 Memory chips.
 Expansion slots for linking other
circuit board.
 External peripheral devices can be
linked to the processor via
serial/parallel ports.

Unit 4 - 6 7
Mother Board (Continues
…)
 Some common ports are:
- Serial port
- Parallel port
- SCSI port
- USB port
- Dedicated keyboard port
- Dedicated mouse port
- Irda port: infra red/ blue tooth port
Unit 4 - 6 8
Central Processing Unit
(CPU)
 Represents the computer’s virtual
brain
 Carries out all internal operations
 Computations

 Data transfer

 Numerical comparison

Unit 4 - 6 9
Central Processing Unit
(CPU)
CPU consists of:
 Control unit (CU)

 Controls the operations


 Arithmetical and logical unit (ALU)
 Arithmetical and logical operations
 Registers
 Storage locations for CU and ALU

Unit 4 - 6 10
Register Size
 Computers can be distinguished from
one another by their word size, register
size, speed and capacity of main
storage, where the register size:
 Represents a storage space inside the
CPU
 Holds numbers being manipulated
 The larger the register the larger the
number it can hold
Unit 4 - 6 11
Register Size (Continues
..)
 Register’s size is expressed in bits
 A bit is a single binary digit
{(False or True), (Off or On) or (0 or 1)}
 Byte is a set of eight bits
 Example of a byte: 01001001
 One byte can express any number
between 0 and 255

Unit 4 - 6 12
Register Size (Continues
..)
 Common register/word sizes are:

 8-lane bit way


 16-lane bit way
 32-lane bit way
 64-lane bit way

Unit 4 - 6 13
Buses and Bus Size
 The bus is the common pathway through
which the processor sends/receives
information's to/from storage & I/O devices.
 Bits travel between memory devices and the
processor over address and data buses. For
R/W, control bus is used.
 Used for transferring program/instructions
and data to/from memory and CPU.
 Affects computer performance.
 How much data can be moved at a time.

 Has a direct relationship with registers where


data is stored.

Unit 4 - 6 14
Speed of the
Microprocessor
 Depends on the microprocessor design.
 Depend on the speed of the system clock.
 Clock ticks at a certain frequency.

 Computer operations require a certain

number of clock ticks.


 The faster the clock is the faster the

computer.
 The speed is measured by no. Of

cycles/second.
 It is expressed in units of frequency (hertz

Hz).
Unit 4- 6
1 megahertz (MHz) = 1 million 15
Speed of …. Continue
 For example:
Time period, time taken for one clock cycle (T) is:
T= 1/frequency (f) or f = 1/T.
If f = 400 MHz then the time taken to complete
one clock cycle is.
T = 1/400 * 106 = 2.5 * 10-9= 2.5 n-sec.
Note: the shorter the clock cycle, the faster the
processor.
Speed units are: MIPS, FLOPS, GFLOPS & TFLOPS.

Unit 4 - 6 16
Examples of CPUs
 8086 microprocessor
 8088 microprocessor
 80286 microprocessor
 80386 microprocessor
 80486 microprocessor
 Pentium series
 Itanium series
 … Etc
Unit 4 - 6 17
Memory
 Primary memory
 Random access memory (RAM)

 Read only memory (ROM)

 Secondary memory
 Floppy disk drive (FDD)

 Hard disk drive (HDD)

Unit 4 - 6 18
Primary Memory (RAM)
 Read write memory (RAM)
 Random access memory (RAM)
 A sequence of individual locations
 Each location has a unique address
 All addresses are equally
accessible
 If the power is cut off the computer
content in the RAM is lost
Unit 4 - 6 19
Primary Memory (RAM)
 The amount of RAM is another
factor involved in determining the
power of a computer
 If the RAM is high then the
computer
 Can run complex programs
 Access data quickly
Unit 4 - 6 20
Primary Memory (RAM)
 The units used to express memory size
are:
 1 byte (B) = 8 bits
 1 kilobytes (K) = 1024 B = 210 bytes
 1 megabytes (M) = 1024 K = 220 bytes =
1 million bytes
 1gigabytes (G) = 1024 M = 230 bytes = 1
billion bytes
 RAM can range from 16 – 400
megabytes
Unit 4 - 6 21
Primary Memory (ROM)
 Read only memory (ROM)
 Used for storing system programs and

routines because it can only be read


 A collection of storage locations

 The information it has, stored at

manufacturing time and it can not be


lost
 Hosts the POST (power-on-self-test)

routines:
 Testing routines, test if everything is
Unit 4 - 6 22
Secondary Memory (FDD)
Floppy disk drive (FDD)
 Works with floppy disks, which are:
 Flexible magnetic disk: inserted and
moved from FDD
 Cheap
 There are three types
 5.25” FD
 3.5” FD
 8” FD

Unit 4 - 6 23
Secondary Memory (HDD)
Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
 Use one or more rigid, magnetic

platters to hold information


 The disks are fixed inside
 They are fast and have greater
capacity than FD

Unit 4 - 6 24
Expansion Slots

 Are internal connectors


 Allow you to plug an additional
circuit board into the motherboard

Unit 4 - 6 25
Device Controller
 It is a circuit board
 It operates a piece of computer
equipment:
 Disk drive
 Display monitor
 Keyboard

Unit 4 - 6 26
Input Devices
 Keyboard
 Device for entering text and
 Telling the computer what to do
 Mouse
 An additional auxiliary device
 Used as a source of input

Unit 4 - 6 27
Output Devices

 Line printer
 Screen
 HDD

Unit 4 - 6 28
System Software (Operating
Systems (O/S))
 It is the s/w that controls the execution
of all applications and system s/w
programs.
 All h/w & s/w are under the control of

the o/s.
 One of the o/s program called kernel

loads other o/s & application program to


RAM as they are needed.
 It is the heart and the soul of a

Unit 4 -computer.
6 29
O/S (Continues ….)
 Classes of operating systems.
 Single user, single tasking: single user
on a single micro that may not linked to
a network.
 Single user, multi tasking: concurrent
execution of more than one program a
time.
 Multi user, single tasking: single user on
a single micro that are linked to a
network.

Unit 4 - 6 Multi user, multi tasking: A combination30
O/S (Continues ….)
 Multiprocessing: more than one
CPU inside.
 Networking task of the O/S.

Some examples are:


Windows98, WindowsNT, Mac OS,
OS-9, Lynix etc.

Unit 4 - 6 31
O/S (Continues ….)
Foreground & background programs:
The o/s rotates allocation of the
processor resource between
foreground and background.
Foreground is that part of the RAM
containing the active/current
program.
Background are of low priority
programs or may be the backup of
Unit 4 -a6 program. 32
Programming Languages
The instruction in a program are logically sequenced and
assembled. Each programming language has an
instruction set with several type of instructions.
Instructions are:
- I/O instruction: which direct the computer to read or
write from which device.
- Computation instruction: to perform arithmetic
operations (add, sub etc).
- Control instruction: which can alter the sequence of
program execution.
- Assignment instruction: for inter-transfer of data from
RAM to other locations.
- Format instruction: used with I/O instruction.

Unit 4 - 6 33
Programming Languages
….
Types of programming languages are:
 Machine Languages (in 1 or 0 form).

 Assembler Languages (in mnemonics).

 High-level languages: (English like).

 Pascal, Cobol, Basic, C, Java, …


 Visual Languages: Icons for words.
 Macros: A sequence of frequently used
operations that can be recalled when
needed.
Unit 4 - 6 34
Platforms
 Platforms are the home for s/w.
 A platform is a h/w standard on

which s/w is developed.


It is defined by two elements:
- The processor (e.G. Pentium,

PowerPC).
- The O/S ( e.G. Mac O/S, NT, OS9).

Unit 4 - 6 35
Application Software
Application s/w are designed and written
to address a specific personal, business
or processing task.
It is the software that helps the user.
 Perform word processing.

 Use electronic spreadsheets to manage

tables to extract results.


 To create databases and manage them.

 To use the email facilities and access

internet.
Unit 4 - 6 36
Reviews:
 Processor parts, memory types,
buses, expansion slots,
communication ports, system
software hardware, mother board
are discussed.

Unit 4 - 6 37