Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 114

Dry Gas Seals

Examples of
Your Seals

© 2003 John Crane EAA 1


© 2003 John Crane EAA 2
3
4
5
6
7
© 2003 John Crane EAA 8
9
10
11
12
13
14
© 2003 John Crane EAA 15
16
17
18
Dry Gas Seals

© 2003 John Crane EAA 19


Dry Gas Seals

Commissioning
Procedure

© 2003 John Crane EAA 20


Commissioning Procedure
■ General preparation

➤ Ensure free shaft rotation with coupling


disconnected

➤ Ensure Bursting Discs have been


replaced

➤ Check buffer gas system - is it on and


functioning?
21
Commissioning Procedure
■ Static Tests
➤ Inboard seal
◆ Open primary leakage line valve
◆ Pressurise casing incrementally to 5 bar g maximum
◆ Measure & record leakage at each increment (Page 23)
◆ Pressurise casing to 7 bar g (If below operating
pressure)
◆ Leakage should rise quickly – indicates static lift-off 
➤ Outboard seal
◆ Close valve in primary leakage line
◆ Pressurise casing to 5 bar g maximum
◆ Measure & record interspace pressure (Page 23)
❖ Will gradually rise if outboard seal operating correctly
◆ Depressurise outboard seal before compressor casing
22
Commissioning Procedure
■ Dynamic test
➤ Fully open primary vent valve
➤ Commence normal start-up procedures
➤ Gradually close primary vent valve to
obtain interspace pressure of 0.5 bar g
➤ Record inboard leakage rates (Page 25)
➤ Compare against guaranteed values (Page
8)
➤ Rejection criteria is 3 times guaranteed
➤ Continue recording leakage for 4 hours (at
half hour intervals) 23
Commissioning Procedure
■ Operation & Maintenance

➤ Virtually no maintenance required

➤ Continue monitoring leakage (daily)

➤ Check for oil in atmospheric vent lines


(monthly)

➤ During prolonged shutdown / staorage,


blank all connecting ports
24
Examination – Test Number 2
Time allowed: 45 minutes
■ And now for the
examination!
■ It is a multiple choice
test paper
■ Points
➤ 1
correct
➤ 0 don’t
know
➤ -1 incorrect
■ There may be more
than one correct
answer - tick them
25
all
Dry Gas Seals

Installation Test

© 2003 John Crane EAA 26


Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the
bore of the compressor housing?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound
C. Nothing
2. What should be used to lubricate the
compressor shaft/rotor?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound
C. Nothing
27
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test

3. During installation, seal setting plate


screws should be:
A. Tight
B. Slackened by 1/8 turn
C. Very loose
D. Removed
4. Compressor rotor should be set:
A. In normal running position
B. Towards non-drive end
C. Towards drive end
28
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised”
A. Before installation in compressor
B. After installation in the compressor
C. It must NOT be exercised
6. A reference dimension between
compressor rotor and compressor
casing should be taken or checked:
A. Before seal installation only
B. After seal installation only
C. Before, during and after installation
D. Reference dimension not important
29
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts
become tight:
A. Use a longer spanner to give better
leverage
B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal
C. Stop, think, investigate, then take
action
8. A failed seal should be:
A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping
production
B. Removed with more care than with the
installation of a new seal. 30
Dry Gas Seals

© 2003 John Crane EAA 31


Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the bore
of the compressor housing?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound
C. Nothing
2. What should be used to lubricate the
compressor shaft/rotor?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound
C. Nothing
32
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the bore
of the compressor housing?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound – very small
amount
C. Nothing
2. What should be used to lubricate the
compressor shaft/rotor?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound
C. Nothing 33
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the bore
of the compressor housing?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound – very small
amount
C. Nothing
2. What should be used to lubricate the
compressor shaft/rotor?
A. Silicone grease
B. Anti-seize compound – very small
amount
34
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test

3. During installation, seal setting plate


screws should be:
A. Tight
B. Slackened by 1/8 turn
C. Very loose
D. Removed
4. Compressor rotor should be set:
A. In normal running position
B. Towards non-drive end
C. Towards drive end
35
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test

3. During installation, seal setting plate


screws should be:
A. Tight
B. Slackened by 1/8 turn
C. Very loose
D. Removed
4. Compressor rotor should be set:
A. In normal running position
B. Towards non-drive end
C. Towards drive end
36
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test

3. During installation, seal setting plate


screws should be:
A. Tight
B. Slackened by 1/8 turn
C. Very loose
D. Removed
4. Compressor rotor should be set:
A. In normal running position
B. Towards non-drive end
C. Towards drive end
37
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised”
A. Before installation in compressor
B. After installation in the compressor
C. It must NOT be exercised
6. A reference dimension between
compressor rotor and compressor
casing should be taken or checked:
A. Before seal installation only
B. After seal installation only
C. Before, during and after installation
D. Reference dimension not important
38
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised”
A. Before installation in compressor
B. After installation in the compressor
C. It must NOT be exercised
6. A reference dimension between
compressor rotor and compressor
casing should be taken or checked:
A. Before seal installation only
B. After seal installation only
C. Before, during and after installation
D. Reference dimension not important
39
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised”
A. Before installation in compressor
B. After installation in the compressor
C. It must NOT be exercised
6. A reference dimension between
compressor rotor and compressor
casing should be taken or checked:
A. Before seal installation only
B. After seal installation only
C. Before, during and after installation
D. Reference dimension not important
40
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts
become tight:
A. Use a longer spanner to give better
leverage
B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal
C. Stop, think, investigate, then take
action
8. A failed seal should be:
A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping
production
B. Removed with more care than with the
installation of a new seal. 41
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts
become tight:
A. Use a longer spanner to give better
leverage
B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal
C. Stop, think, investigate, then take
action
8. A failed seal should be:
A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping
production
B. Removed with more care than with the
installation of a new seal. 42
Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts
become tight:
A. Use a longer spanner to give better
leverage
B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal
C. Stop, think, investigate, then take
action
8. A failed seal should be:
A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping
production
B. Removed with more care than with the
installation of a new seal – it may stick! 43
Dry Gas Seals

Dismantling and
Re-assembling

© 2003 John Crane EAA 44


Hands-on Exercise 3
S/38644 S/39397 S/38006 S/39923
T28AT+Laby T28AT Small T28AT T28XP

C D B A

1. Disassemble and re-assemble seal


(Only disassemble/clean/assemble
inboard seal unit)
2. Install one new tolerance strip in
bore of main sleeve
3. Re-assemble seal
45
Seal Failure
Analysis

© 2003 John Crane EAA 46


Failure Statistics - Returned
Seals
■ 80% - significant contamination
➤ 50% - contaminant was hydrocarbon
◆ liquid from process gas
◆ lube oil from bearings

➤ 10% - solids / particulates


◆ from pipework
◆ from process gas (incorrect filtration)

➤ 4% - chloride based from the process


gas
➤ 2% - free water from the process gas

➤ 14% - unknown contaminants

47
Hydrocarbon Contamination
■ Oil from bearings
➤ Ensure barrier seal is fitted between seal
and bearings
➤ Ensure barrier gas is switched on before

oil system (30 minute delay)


➤ Ensure oil system is switched off before

barrier gas system (30 minute delay)


■ Problem
➤ High temperature from shearing liquid -
mating ring fracture
➤ Burnt oil deposits block grooves and/or

cause hang-up of balance diameter seal


48
Hydrocarbon Contamination

■ Hydrocarbons from Process Gas

➤ Efficient coalescing filters

➤ Heat the filtered gas to overcome the


Joule-Thompson effect

49
Other Contaminants
■ Water - corrosion of metal and carbide
➤ drop-out from process gas, often at
pressurised stand-still conditions

■ Chloride Corrosion
➤ salt water entrained in process gas

All can be designed for - these were all


unexpected contaminants

50
Liquid Contamination

51
Other Causes of Failure
■ Reverse Rotation
➤ face contact can occur
➤ bi-directional seal (Type 28BD) can be

supplied
➤ occasional low speed acceptable with

Type 28AT and Type 28XP


■ Reverse Pressure
➤ face contact can occur
➤ at high speeds - mating ring fracture

➤ can be designed for static reverse

pressure
➤ consider pressurised double seal
52
Other Causes of Failure
■ Incorrect Fitting
➤ axial alignment (working length ± 0.5
mm)
◆ rotor in correct position
◆ accurate shims

➤ contamination from fitting lubricants


➤ incorrectly fitted tolerance rings

➤ damaged o-rings / polymer rings

■ O-ring damage during running


➤ chemical attack
➤ thermal attack

➤ explosive decompression
53
Mating Rings

Contact Damage

Not acceptable.
Must be replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?

54
Mating Rings

55
Mating Rings

56
Mating Ring Contact - Causes

57
Mating Ring Contact - Causes

No lift Forced contact


58
Mating Ring Contact - Causes
Typical Example Start-up Misalignment
of a Failure procedures Buffer gas
Analysis Root supply & timing Thrust worn
Dirt
Causes Tree
Before start-up.
Settle-out pressure Clearances
Check control system
Bal. diameter wear

Why/How? Labyrinth or Type 82 Dew point


Thermal attack
Bal. diameter o-ring
Joule-Thompson?
Blocked filter
Wrong filter size Chemical attack
No filter Bearing Oil Condensate Bal. diameter o-ring

Dirt Coke Installation


(Exercise?)

Blocked grooves Hang-up

No lift Forced contact


59
Mating Ring Contact - Causes
Typical Example Was rotor in running position Check flare pressure
of a Failure when seals were installed?
Analysis Root Check operating
Check DE/NDE bias procedures
Causes Tree
Check buffer
Check position
gas pressure
and condition Driver reversal

Shim size Seal at correct end? Turbining Wrong seal


& position
Thrust bearing

Assembly Thermal Growth

Installation Reverse rotation

Reverse pressure

Hang-up

No lift Forced contact


60
Mating Rings

Chips x

Not acceptable, especially with Silicon Carbide.


Must be replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?
61
Mating Rings

Heat Checking

Very rare, but can be


seen on tungsten
carbide. Not acceptable.
Must be replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?

62
Mating Rings

63
Mating Rings

Pitting

Tungsten carbide can be


attacked by contaminants.
Can sometimes be re-
lapped.
In most cases, will have to
be replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?
64
Mating Rings

Chloride attack on
Tungsten Carbide

65
Mating Rings - Chloride Attack

66
Mating Rings

Groove Deposits

Can be cleaned, but


usually needs re-lapping
and re-grooving.
Check for heat-crazing
and contact.
Investigate HOW / WHY?
67
Cosmetic Marks

Again for comparison, surface marking of no significant depth,


which is cosmetic and acceptable

68
Primary Ring

Contact

Contact is unacceptable.
Can cause excessive heat,
melting the metal filler in
the carbon.
Must be replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?

69
Primary Ring
Showing Inside Diameter Primary Ring/Mating Ring
Contact

Not acceptable. Replace Primary Ring.


Investigate HOW / WHY?

70
Primary Ring Damage

Showing large particle marking. The face must be lapped back


to remove all trace, checked for thickness and re-processed.
Probably needs replacing.
Investigate HOW / WHY?
71
Cosmetic Marks

Showing light gramaphoning with no depth, due to particles.


Cosmetic, and acceptable.

72
Primary Ring

Normal Wear

Acceptable
“scuffing” marks.

Radial scratches
must be lapped
out.

73
Cosmetic Marks

Showing light circumferential marks caused by particles


trapped between seal and face

74
Cosmetic Marks

This shows an exposed particle which has been pulled out


of the surface and has caused a ring of contact.
This is cosmetic and acceptable

75
Cosmetic Marks

Showing scuffing where particles have passed through the


seal.
This is acceptable.

76
Cosmetic Marks

Showing surface discolouration which is due to the manufacture


of the primary ring blank.
This is acceptable.
(Not to be confused with oil blistering).

77
Primary Ring

Radial Cracks

This is rare. Check that it


is a crack and not a
scratch. Must be
replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?

78
Primary Ring

Chipping
Blend

Very small chips on the ID of the carbon are


acceptable provided they can be blended in.

Small chips on the OD are acceptable provided they


can be blended in.

Large chips require the primary ring to be replaced.

Investigate HOW / WHY?


79
Chips

Showing a small chip which may be blended out and accepted.

80
Chips

Showing a larger chip encroaching onto the sealing dam.


Primary Ring must be replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?
81
Primary Ring

Oil Blisters

Not acceptable.
Must be replaced.
Investigate HOW / WHY?

82
Labyrinth – Chloride Attack

83
Type 28XP Carrier - Contact

84
O-Rings

Nicks and Cuts

85
O-Rings

Explosive Decompression

86
O-Rings

Thermal Damage

87
O-Rings
Compression Set
(More common with Perfluoroelastomer
material)

(1 hour at 200°C)

88
Polymer Seals
Better explosive decompression and corrosion resistance
They require careful handling.

89
Polymer Seals

Sliding Damage

Typical of damage to
be found on seal OD
polymer rings in Type
28XP seals.
Must be replaced.

Investigate HOW /
WHY?
90
Polymer Seals

Damaged Spring
Spring holds seal open to
enable pressure to
energise the seal.
Must be replaced.

Investigate HOW / WHY?

91
Metal Parts
Check critical areas
Scored Bore (o-ring grooves,
tolerance ring grooves
and landings).

Polish out marks with


fine emery paper, but
do not damage edges
of tolerance strip
grooves.

Check compressor
shaft and clean up
carefully.

Check that correct


lubricant is being used,
and used sparingly.
92
Metal Parts

Galling Often caused by


misalignment during
fitting or removal.

Check condition of
compressor shaft and
take remedial action.

Repair may be possible,


but distortion may
cause problem to re-
occur.

Replacement is
generally advised
93
Metal Parts
Dents, bumps, hammer marks, distortion
Parallel

Square

Bore must be
perfectly
round

94
Metal Parts
Fretting and Pitting

Contaminants in the gas can cause pitting.

The balance diameter is critical and pitting is not


acceptable.

Must be replaced.

Investigate HOW / WHY?


95
Dry Gas Seals

Cleanliness
Accuracy
Time

96
Dry Gas Seals

When:

3. Installing a seal
4. Removing a seal
5. Disassembling a seal
6. Assembling a seal

STOP if anything starts to get tight


97
Dry Gas Seals

Cleanliness
Accuracy
Time
Stop!!
98
Apply “CATS” and you can . . .

99
Produced by John Blaber
Technology
Developments
Materials

© 2003 John Crane EAA 101


Cranite Primary Ring Material
Desirable Attributes Silicon Existing
Carbide Carbon

High Modulus  
Good dry friction  
Homogeneous material  
Good Thermal conductivity  
Lower internal stresses  
Higher Stability  
Fracture Toughness   Diamond like coating

102
Cranite Material - Attributes
■ Composite of Silicon Carbide & Carbon
■ High elastic modulus
➤ Reduced radial and toroidal deflections
■ High thermal conductivity
➤ Reduced thermal distortions
■ High stability
➤ Negligible residual distortion
■ Good dry friction
➤ Retains excellent carbon performance
103
Cranite 2000
Desirable Attributes Silicon Existing Cranite
Carbide Carbon 2000

High Modulus   
Good dry friction   
Homogeneous material   
Good Thermal conductivity   
Lower internal stresses   
Higher Stability   
Fracture Toughness    Diamond like coating

104
Cranite 2000 - Benefits
■ Higher pressure capability
➤ Controlled face distortion
➤ Controlled radial deflections
➤ Reduced operating gap
➤ Stiffer fluid film
■ Reduced leakage
➤ Highly stable, repeatable at any
pressure
■ Excellent stop/start face
performance
➤ No need for coating 105
CTrans Analysis
Static Leakage up to 250 bar
140
Pressure ( x 10 bar )

120
Leakage ( l/min );

100

80 Carbon

60
Cranite
40
Pressure
20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (sec)
106
Dynamic Tests - Leakage Comparison

Cranite 2000 Development


Dynamic IB leakages, cranite versus carbon faces @ 6000 rpm.
140

120
Leakages / l.min
-1

100 Carbon
80

60 Cranite 2000
40

20

0
20 40 80 120 160 200
Pressure / bar g.

107
Cranite / ADC Dynamic Test

250
Pressure ( bar ) ; Temp (C)

Pressure
200
Leakage ( l/min )

Temp

150

Leakage
100

50
Speed x 100

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Time (min)
108
Cranite Stop-Start & Slow Roll
Tests
■ Over 2100 stop-start cycles ( spring
load )
■ Over 50 hrs slow-roll @ 100 rpm

4000
Speed (rpm)

3000
2000
1000
0
0 5 10 15
Time (min)

109
Improved Silicon Carbide
Material
■ Increased TRS - 25%
■ Increased fracture toughness - 40%
■ Improved availability
■ Adopted as Preferred Standard SiC Q1/99

110
Large Diameter Cranite Seal
Tests
■ 10.375” seal for Nam Groningen

> Cranite Faces


> Improved seat
material

111
Improved Carbon
■ 6 Month Development program
➤ Carbons tested to 250 bar
➤ Residual distortion measured

➤ Improved grade reduced distortion by 70

%
Residual distortion Level

5.437"

7.125"

Carbon 1 Carbon 2 Carbon 3 Original


Carbon

112
Improved Carbon Material
■ Improved processing
➤ Reduced Prepressurisation

■ Less residual distortion


➤ More uniform presentation angle
➤ Higher Stability

➤ Reduced sensitivity

■ Improved reliability
➤ More stable leakage
➤ Face shadowing eliminated

113
Improved Carbon
■ Tested on pilot jobs Q3/98

■ Introduced on high pressure jobs Q4/98

■ Adopted as standard for all


seals Q1/99

■ Improved production process


➤ Prepressurisation offline
➤ Cycle time reduced

from 3 days to 3 hours


114