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Chapter 3- Digital

Representation and
Organization of Geospatial
Data
Concepts and Techniques of
Geographic Information Systems,
2e
by C.P Lo and Albert K.W. Yeung
Introduction
► GIS:Maps are dynamic
representations of geospatial features,
unlike paper maps.

► Data Model: A way of representing


data.
Representing Geographic Space
► Features are either objects or phenomena.

► Twotypes of models to represent this:


object-based and field-based.

► Object-based modeling treats features as


discrete objects
 Must have identifiable boundaries
 Relevant to intended application
 Has attribute data
 Can include either exact objects or fuzzy objects
Figure 3.3
► Field-based models: spatial phenomenon
that vary continuously across the landscape

► Can be obtained directly or indirectly

► Directmeans it is derived from remote


sensing.

► Indirectmeans it was processed from a


primary data source, i.e.. interpolated
surfaces, DEMs, etc.
Figure 3.4
Data Classification
► Geospatialdata typically collected and
stored as categorical.

►A classification scheme includes:


 Descriptive names
 Definitions
Non-categorical Data
Categorical Data
Tessellations
► Divecontinuous space into discrete
units of unique possible values

► Called quantizing space

► Lessexact location than vector, but


you have more control on spatial
uniformity.

► Anyshape possible….but square is


normal.
Figure 3.17
Figure 3.19
Table 3.2
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
Digital Ortho Quad (DOQQ)
Digital Line (Raster) Graphic
(DRG)
NLCD Land Cover
STATSGO: Soils
Where do you find all of this
stuff?
► TNRIS: Texas
Natural Resource
Information System
In Class Skill Builder
► Pair-up
► Download A 30 meter Digital Elevation Model
► Unzip it to an file on the C:\ (NOT THE DESKTOP)
► View it in ArcCatalog
► Open the red toolbox icon
► Go to Conversion Tools/To Raster/DEM to Raster
► Convert your DEM to a GRID
► Load your newly created DEM into ArcMap
► Try downloading and adding more data from TNRIS
to your project.
Vector Data
► Object–oriented approach to
representation of real-world features
and is best used to represent discrete
objects.

► All vector data built on two concepts:


 Decomposition of spatial objects into
basic elements (points, lines, polygons).
 Use of topology (spatial relationships)
Nature and Characteristics of
Vector Data
► BasicGraphical Elements are
represented by at least one pair of
coordinate points.
 Points: One pair of coordinate points
 Lines or Arcs: string of coordinates that
begin and end with a “node.”
 Polygons: closed group of coordinates
► SpaghettiData: vector data that has
been collected but not structured
Figure 3.20
Structured Vector Data
► Have:
 Topological Relationships : A set of rules
and behaviors that model how points,
lines, and polygons share geometry. For
example, adjacent features, such as two
counties, will share a common edge.
 Linked to descriptive data in geospatial
databases.
Why Topology?
► Manage shared geometry. For example,
adjacent polygons, such as parcels, share
edges; adjacent soil polygons share edges.
► Define and enforce data integrity rules (no
gaps should exist between parcels, no
overlap, etc.)
► Support topological relationship queries and
navigation (have the ability to identify
adjacent and connected features, find
shared edges, etc.)
Why Topology?
► Support sophisticated editing tools
that enforce the topological
constraints of the data model (e.g.
ability to edit a shared edge and
update all the features that share the
common edge).
► Construct features from unstructured
geometry (restructure spaghetti)
The Other Definition of Topology
► The branch of mathematics that
studies those properties of geometric
figures that are unchanged when the
shape of a figure is twisted, stretched,
shrunk, or otherwise distorted without
breaking.
► Math concerned with spatial
relationships
► This is how we think, or how we
perceive geography using our mental
maps (not coordinates)
Figure 3.21
Figure 3.22
Table 3.3
Representation of Vector
Data
► Governed by scale
► Cartographic Generalization: line and
area objects are represented by more
coordinates at a larger scale than at a
smaller scale.
► Cartographic Symbolization: vector
data are represented by different
symbols that serve to visually
distinguish them from one another
when the data are displayed.
Basic Elements of Topology
► Adjacency: information about the
neighborhood among spatial objects.
► Containment: information about
inclusion of one spatial object within
another spatial object
► Connectivity: information about
linkages among spatial objects.
Figure 3.23
Figure 3.28
Geodatabase
► Introducedwith ArcGIS 8.0
► Term has several meanings
 A common data access and management
framework for ArcGIS software products that
enables folks to use GIS across computer
platforms
 A generic GIS data model for defining all types of
geospatial data by using a rich set of data types
and sophisticated referential integrity and
topological rules
 A combined system of databases that are
enhanced by added geospatial data layers and
built-in map displays, feature editing and spatial
analysis functions
 All data sets use the same data tables and
metadata and all is cross-indexed.
Figure 3.37
Table 3.4