RESISTANCE
Electrical resistance is a ratio of the degree to which an object opposes an
electric current through it, measured in ohms. Its reciprocal quantity is
electrical conductance measured in siemens.
Assuming a uniform current density, an object's electrical resistance is a
function of both its physical geometry and the resistivity of the material it is
made from:
Resistance,
where
l = length of conductor, measured in meters
A = cross sectional area, measured in square meters
= resistivity of the material, measured in ohmmeter
A
l
R
=
2
RESISTANCE
The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm, symbol . The resistance of an
object determines the amount of current through the object for a given potential
diffrence across the object.
Where,
R is the resistance of the object, measured in ohms
V is the potential difference across the object, measured in volts
I is the current through the object, measured in amperes
This ratio of Voltage divided by Electric current is also called the Chordal
Resistance.
For a wide variety of materials and conditions, the electrical resistance does not
depend on the amount of current through or the amount of voltage across the
object, meaning that the resistance R is constant.
I
V
R =
3
SERIES CIRCUITS
Series circuits are sometimes called currentcoupled.
The current that flows in a series circuit has to flow through every
component in the circuit. Therefore, all of the components in a series
connection carry the same current.
To find the total resistance of all the components, add the individual
resistances of each component:
For components in series with resistances R1, R2, etc. To find the current
I, use Ohms law.
To find the voltage across a component with resistance Ri, use Ohm's law
again.
where I is the current, as calculated above. The components divide the
voltage according to their resistances, so, in the case of two resistors.
4
Equivalent resistance of resistors in series : R = R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ ...
A series circuit is shown in the diagram above. The current flows through each
resistor in turn. If the values of the three resistors are:
With a 10 V battery, by V = I R the total current in the circuit is:
I = V / R = 10 / 20 = 0.5 A. The current through each resistor would be 0.5 A.
5
PARALLEL CIRCUITS
A parallel circuit is a circuit in which the resistors are arranged with their
heads connected together, and their tails connected together.
The current in a parallel circuit breaks up, with some flowing along each
parallel branch and recombining when the branches meet again.
The voltage across each resistor in parallel is the same.
The total resistance of a set of resistors in parallel is found by adding up
the reciprocals of the resistance values, and then taking the reciprocal of
the total:
Equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel: 1 / R = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 /
R3 +...
6
A parallel circuit is shown in the diagram above. In this case the
current supplied by the battery splits up, and the amount going
through each resistor depends on the resistance. If the values of
the three resistors are:
With a 10 V battery, by V = I R the total current in the circuit is: I
= V / R = 10 / 2 = 5 A.
The individual currents can also be found using I = V / R.
The voltage across each resistor is 10 V,
so,
I1 = 10 / 8 = 1.25 A
I2 = 10 / 8 = 1.25 A
I3=10 / 4 = 2.5 A
Note that the currents add together to 5A, the total current.
7
CAPACITORS IN SERIES
The overall effect of connecting capacitors in series is to move
the plates of the capacitors further apart. This is shown in figure
below. Notice that the junction between C1 and C2 has both a
negative and a positive charge. This causes the junction to be
essentially neutral. The total capacitance of the circuit is
developed between the left plate of C1 and the right plate of C2.
Because these plates are farther apart, the total value of the
capacitance in the circuit is decreased. Solving for the total
capacitance (CT) of capacitors connected in series is similar to
solving for the total resistance (RT) of resistors connected in
parallel.
8
Note the similarity between the formulas for RT and CT:
If the circuit contains more than two capacitors, use the above formula. If the circuit
contains only two capacitors, use the below formula:
Note: All values for CT, C1, C2, C3,... C n should be in farads. It should be evident
from the above formulas that the total capacitance of capacitors in series is less than
the capacitance of any of the individual capacitors.
Example: Determine the total capacitance of a series circuit containing three
capacitors whose values are 0.01 mF, 0.25 mF, and 50,000 pF, respectively.
9
The total capacitance of 0.008mF is slightly smaller than the smallest
capacitor (0.01mF).
10
CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL
When capacitors are connected in parallel, one plate of each
capacitor is connected directly to one terminal of the source,
while the other plate of each capacitor is connected to the
other terminal of the source. Figure 314 shows all the
negative plates of the capacitors connected together, and all
the positive plates connected together. C T, therefore,
appears as a capacitor with a plate area equal to the sum of
all the individual plate areas. As previously mentioned,
capacitance is a direct function of plate area. Connecting
capacitors in parallel effectively increases plate area and
thereby increases total capacitance.
11
For capacitors connected in parallel the total capacitance is the
sum of all the individual capacitances. The total capacitance of the
circuit may by calculated using the formula:
where all capacitances are in the same units.
Example: Determine the total capacitance in a parallel capacitive
circuit containing three capacitors whose values are 0.03 mF, 2.0
mF, and 0.25 mF, respectively.
Q.1 What is the total capacitance of a circuit in which four
capacitors (10 mF, 21 mF, 0.1 mF and 2 mF) are connected
in parallel?
12
KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW
Kirchhoff's Current Law, also known as Kirchhoff's Junction Law
and Kirchhoff's First Law, defines the way that electrical current is
distributed when it crosses through a junction  a point where
three or more conductors meet.
Specifically, the law states that: The algebraic sum of current into
any junction is zero.Since current is the flow of electrons through
a conductor, it cannot build up at a junction, meaning that current
is conserved: what comes in must come out.
When performing calculations, current flowing into and out of the
junction typically have opposite signs.
This allows Kirchhoff's Current Law to be restated as: The sum of
current into a junction equals the sum of current out of the
junction.
13
KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW
In the picture to the right, a junction of four conductors (i.e. wires) is shown.
The currents i2 and i3 are flowing into the junction, while i1 and i4 flow out
of it. In this example, Kirchhoff's Junction Rule yields the following equation:
i2 + i3 = i1 + i4
14
KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law describes the distribution of voltage within a loop, or
closed conducting path, of an electrical circuit.
Specifically, Kirchhoff's Voltage Law states that: The algebraic sum of the
voltage (potential) differences in any loop must equal zero.
The voltage differences include those associated with electromagnetic fields
(emfs) and resistive elements, such as resistors, power sources (i.e.
batteries) or devices (i.e. lamps, televisions, blenders, etc.) plugged into the
circuit.
15
EXAMPLE 1
Kirchoff
Use the Kirchoff laws to determine the current flowing in each branch of the network
shown below.
Method
Use Kirchoff current law to label the current directions remembering that conventional
current flows from the positive side of the battery to the negative side. Divide into two
loops and then use the Kirchoff voltage law. Solve the simultaneous equations to find
the three currents.
16
Loop 1
V1 = 5V = I1xR1 + I2xR2 = 5I1 + 10I2
5I1 + 10I2 = 5 Equation 1
Loop 2
V2 = 10V = I2xR2 + (I1 + I2)xR3 =10I2 + 2I1 + 2I2 = 2I1 +12I2
2I1+12I2 = 10 Equation 2
Solve the simultaneous equations, multiply equation 1 by 2 and equation
2 by 5
10I1 + 20I2 = 10 Equation 3
10I1 + 60I2 = 50 Equation 4
17
Equation 3 + Equation 4
80I2 = 60
I2 = 0.75A
Substitute this back into Equation 1 (or any of the other
equations)
5I1+ (10 x 0.75 )= 5
5I1 = 5 7.5
I1 = 0.5A
Finally, the current through R3 = I1 + I2 = 1.25A
18
EXAMPLE 2
Kirchoff
Use the Kirchoff laws to determine the current flowing in each branch of the network
shown below.
Method
Use Kirchoff current law to label the current directions start at each voltage source
and remember that conventional current flows from the positive side of the battery to
the negative side. Divide into two loops and then use the Kirchoff voltage law. Solve
the simultaneous equations to find the three currents.
19
Loop 1
V1 = 4V = I1xR1 + (I1 + I2)xR3 = 2I1 + 4I1 +4I2 = 6I1 + 4I2
6I1 + 4I2 = 4  Equation 1
Loop 2
V2 = 2V = I2xR2 + (I1 + I2)xR3 = I2 + 4I1 + 4I2 = 4I1 +5I2
4I1 +5I2 = 2  Equation 2
Solve the simultaneous equations, multiply equation 1 by 2 and equation 2 by 3
12I1 + 8I2 = 8 Equation 3
12I1 + 15I2 = 6 Equation 4
20
Equation 4 Equation 3
7I2 = 2 therefore I2 =  0.286A
Substitute this back into Equation 1 (or any of the other equations)
6I1 = 4  4 (0.286)
I1 = 0.857A
I1 + I2 = 0.571A
Negative current?
Note that the current I2 is negative because it actually flows in the opposite direction
to the direction labeled on the circuit at the beginning!
21
EXAMPLE 3
Consider the figure shown below with the following Parameters:
V1 = 15V
V2 = 7V
R1 = 20
R2 = 5
R3 = 10
Find current through R3 using Kirchoff's Voltage Law.
22
Solution:
We can see that there are two closed paths (loops) where we can apply KVL in, Loop
1 and 2 as shown in the figure.
From Loop 1 we get:
V1 VR3 VR1 = 0
From Loop 2 we get:
V2 VR3 VR2 = 0
23
The above results can further be simplified as follows:
V1 (I1 I2) * R3 I1 * R1 = 0
..... (1)
and
V2 + (I1 I2) * R3 I2 * R2 = 0
..... (2)
By equating above (1) and (2) we can eliminate I2 and hence get the following:
..... (3)
We end up with the above three equations and now substitute the Values given in the
above equations and solve the variables.
24
It is clear that: from (3)
Substitute the Above Result into (2)
.
The Positive sign for I
2
only tells us that Current I
2
flows in the same direction to our initial
assumed direction. Thus now we can calculate Current through R
3
as follows:
The Negative sign for I
R3
only tells us that Current I
R3
flows in the same direction to I
2
direction.
25
SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
In a network with multiple voltage sources, the current in any branch is the sum of the
currents which would flow in that branch due to each voltage source acting alone with
all other voltage sources replaced by their internal impedances.
The goal of following text is to check superposition theorem.
Example 1
Step 1. Construct following circuit using Circuit Magic then run Node Voltage
Analysis. You can also calculate currents using other techniques.
26
R2 = 10Ohms; R1 = 10Ohms; R3 = 10Ohms;
E1 = 3V; E3 = 4V;
Solution
V1xG11 = I11
G11 = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 = 0,3
I11 = E1/R1E3/R3 = 0.7
0,3V1 = 0.7
V1 = 2.3333
V2 = 0
I1 = (V1V2+E1)/R1 = 0.0666667
I2 = (V1V2)/R2 = 0.233333
I3 = (V1V2+E3)/R3 = 0.166667
These values are used to check currents determined from
superposition theorem
27
Step 2. Remove a voltage source from the third branch then run Node
Voltage Analysis.
R2 = 10Ohms; R1 = 10Ohms; R3 = 10Ohms;
E1 = 3V;
Solution
V1xG11 = I11
G11 = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 = 0.3
I11 = E1/R1 = 0.3
0,3V1 = 0.3
V1 = 1
V2 = 0
I1(1) = (V1V2+E1)/R1 = 0.2
I2(1) = (V1V2)/R2 = 0.1
I3(1) = (V1V2)/R3 = 0.1
These values are used to determine current from superposition theorem.
28
R2 = 10Ohms; R1 = 10Ohms; R3 = 10Ohms;
E3 = 4V;
Solution
V1xG11 = I11
G11 = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 = 0.3
I11 = E3/R3 = 0.4
0.3V1 = 0.4
V1 = 1.3333
V2 = 0
I1(2) = (V1V2)/R1 = 0.133333
I2(2) = (V1V2)/R2 = 0.133333
I3(2) = (V1V2+E3)/R3 = 0.266667
Superposition theorem checking
I1 = I1(1)+I1(2) = 0.20.133333 = 0.0666666
I2 = I2(1)+I2(2) = 0.10.133333 = 0.233333
I3 = I3(1)+I3(2) = 0.1+0.266667 = 0.166667
29
Example 2: Solve this example by using superposition theorem.
First turn the voltage source of 20V off (shortcircuit with 0V), and get,
Second turn the voltage source of 32V off and get,
The overall currents can then be found to be,
30
THEVENIN THEOREM
Any oneport (twoterminal) network of resistance elements and energy
sources is equivalent to an ideal voltage source in series with a resistor,
where
is the opencircuit voltage of the network, and
is the equivalent resistance when all energy sources are turned off
(shortcircuit for voltage sources, opencircuit for current sources).
If we are only interested in finding the voltage, V across and current, I through
one particular resistor in a complex circuit containing a large number of resistors,
voltage and current sources, we can ``pull'' the resistor out and treat the rest of
the circuit as a Thevenin voltage source , and use Thevenin's theorem to
find V and I.
T
V
T
R
( )
T T
R , V
31
Proof:
Assume with the load the network's terminal voltage and current are V and I respectively.
Replace the load by an ideal current source with I while keeping the terminal voltage V
the same (b), the voltage or current anywhere in the system should not be affected.
Find the terminal voltage V in terms of the internal energy sources inside the network and
the external current source by superposition principle:
When the external current source is open circuit, the terminal voltage is due
only to the sources internal to the network (c).
When all internal sources are turned off (shortcircuit for voltage sources, open
circuit for current sources), the terminal voltage where is the equivalent
resistance of the network with all energy sources off (d).
32
The overall terminal voltage is,
As far as the port voltage V and current I are concerned, a
oneport network is equivalent to an ideal voltage source,
equal to the opencircuit voltage across the port,
in series with an internal resistance, which can
be obtained as the ratio of the opencircuit voltage and the
shortcircuit current.
33
EXAMPLE
A demonstration of the thevenin technique to find I1 in the diagram below :
The circuit to the right of points A and B is converted to a Thevenin source
and resistance. With the 30v battery and left hand 10ohm resistor omitted,
the Thevenin voltage becomes:
Vth = 40 x 10/30 = 400/30
Rth = 1020 = 200/30 (10 ohm parallel with 20 ohm voltage source s/c )
I1 then becomes 30  Vth / ( 10 + Rth )
I1 = 30  400/30 / 10 + 200/30
= 900/30  400/30 / (300/30 + 200/30)
= 500/30 / 500/30
= 1amp
34
NORTHON THEOREM
The Norton theorem converts an ordinary circuit to an equivalent parallel circuit which
is a current source in parallel with a resistor. The technique is similar to the thevenin
theorem and two points in a circuit must be defined, this is where the analysis will
take place.
As with Thevenin, the equivalent circuit is a current generator In and norton
equivalent resistance, Rn. These must be worked out to use the Norton theorem.
The analysis points using Norton are short circuited, whereas using the Thevenin
Method they are open circuit.
Value of Vth and Rth
The value of Vth is found by either measuring (if you don't know what's in the circuit)
or be using circuit analysis. To find Rth ( with load removed) short circuit voltage
supplies, open current sources and calculate the equivalent resistance.
35
EXAMPLE
Norton's theorem is demonstrated to find the current I1 in the diagram below:
The points A and B is where the Norton conversion takes place, the right 50 ohm
resistor is removed, A and B are short circuited, see below:
In First the total current is calculated 100 / (50 + 100  50) = 1.2 amp. Using the
current division rule,
In becomes 1.2 x 100 / (50+100) = 0.8 amp
36
Rn is 50 + 100  50 = 83.3333333 ohm
The Norton equivalent circuit can now be completed with the right hand 50
ohm resistor included:
The current I can now be found using the current division rule:
I = 0.8 x (83.3333 / ( 50 + 83.3333)) = 0.5 amp
37
CHARGING OF A CAPACITOR
The figure below shows a Capacitor, (C) in series with a Resistor, (R) connected
across a d.c. battery supply (Vs) via a switch. When the switch is closed, the
capacitor will gradually charge up through the resistor until the voltage across it
reaches the supply voltage of the battery. The manner in which the capacitor
charges up is also shown below.
38
RC TIME CONSTANT
Consider a capacitor initially charged to Vinit, and connected to a resistor: Here we
will apply the Kirchoff Voltage Law for this loop:
Vr+Vc=0 or Vr=Vc
Because the same current runs through each element: Ir = Ic.
Using the constitutive law of the capacitor and resistor, Vc = 1/C Qc
Vr = R x Ir  (1)
and the relation between charge and current, qc' = ic , together with the voltage and
current relations next to the figure above,
Qc' =  (1/RC) Qc  (2)
To see it in terms of current, take its time derivative: Ic' =  (1/RC) Ic  (3)
Or in terms of voltage, using (1), Vc' =  (1/RC) Vc  (4)
All of these equations have an easy solution, e.g.  (5)
We must choose A such that we match the stated initial condition that Vc = Vinit at
t=0. For that to be so, A must be Vinit, so the specific solution is
RC
t
C
Ae V
=
RC
t
init C
e V V
=
39
What happens if the capacitor is initially discharged, then placed in a circuit with a
resistor and a battery? Here is such a circuit. Note that there is a switch in the circuit
above the battery which will be closed at time t=0. At t=0, VC=0. To analyze this
circuit, we will apply the Kirchoff Voltage Law that we will see in more detail in the
next section. The polarities of my meters has been assigned consistently with our
convention:
Vr + Vc  Vb = 0
Because the same current runs through each element: Ir = Ic = I.
Our constitutive laws of the two elements are:
Vc = 1/C Qc ; Vr = R I x r
Again, starting with our current/charge relation for the capacitor,
Qc' = Ic = Vr/R = ( Vb  Vc )/R ; Qc' = Vb /R  (1/RC) Qc
Since we are not so interested in charge per se, but more so in the voltage changing
across the capacitor, we can rewrite this diffeq using the constitutive law of the
capacitor again:
 (7)
Again, we have a differential equation in which the derivative of something is equal to
a constant times itself, plus another constant. We anticipate an exponential solution
for this and the following is the solution for (7):
40
41
EXAMPLE
Calculate the time constant of the
following circuit. The time constant,
T of the circuit is found using the
following formula T = R x C given
in seconds.
Therefore, the RC circuits time constant:
T = R x C = 100k x 22uF = 2.2 Sec
a) What value will be the voltage across the capacitor at 0.7 time
constants?
At 0.7 time constants (0.7T) Vc = 0.5Vc.
Therefore, Vc = 0.5 x 10V = 5V
b) What value will be the voltage across the capacitor after 1 time
constant?
At 1 time constant (1T) Vc = 0.63Vc.
Therefore, Vc = 0.63 x 10V = 6.3V
c) How long will it take for the capacitor to "fully charge" itself (5 time
constants)?
1 time constant (1T) = 2.2 seconds. Therefore, 5T = 5 x 2.2 = 11 Sec
42
RL CIRCUIT
When switch is connected, the RL combination is suddenly put across
the voltage V volt. The applied voltage V must, at any instant, supply
not only the ohmic drop iR over the resistance R but must also
overcome the e.m.f. of self inductance i.e.
 (1)
 (2)
 (3)
 (4)
Multiplying both sides by (R), we get,  (5)
Integrating both sides, we get,  (6)
dt
di
L
dt
di
L iR v v V
L R
+ = + =
( )
dt
di
L iR V =
L
di
iR V
di
=
( )
( )
dt
L
R
iR V
di
R =
( )
( )
} }
=
dt
L
R
iR V
di R
43
 (7)
To begin with, when , t=0, i=0, hence putting these values in equation (7) above, we
get,
 (8)
Substituting this value of K in the above given equation, we have,
 (9)
 (10)
 (11)
where, time constant.
K t
L
R
iR V
e
+ =
log
K
V
e
= log
V
e
iR V
e
t
L
R
log log + =
t
L
R
V
e
iR V
e
=
log log
t
t
L
R
V
iR V
e
= =
log
=
R
L
44
RL Circuit
45
 (12)
 (13)
Now, represents the maximum steady value of current that would eventually
be established through the RL circuit.
 (14)
The graph for the rate of rise of current with the time constant of the RL circuit is
shown in figure below
t
e
V
iR V
=


.

\

=
t
e
R
V
i 1


.

\

=
t
m
e I i 1
R
V
46
100
63.2
0
Sw. Closed Time
R V I
m
=
( )
t
m
e I i
= 1
R
L
=
% of
Max.
Current,
Im
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