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Combination of aviation and electronics Avionics system or Avionics sub-system dependent on electronics Avionics industry- a major multi-billion dollar

industry world wide Avionics equipment on a modern military or civil aircraft\ account for around
30% of the total cost of the aircraft 40% in the case of a maritime patrol/anti-submarine aircraft (or helicopter) Over 75% of the total cost in the case of an airborne early warning aircraft such as an AWACS

To enable the flight crew to carry out the aircraft mission safely and efficiently Mission is carrying passengers to their destination (Civil Airliner) Intercepting a hostile aircraft, attacking a ground target, reconnaissance or maritime patrol (Military Aircraft)

To meet the mission requirements with the minimum flight crew (namely the first pilot and the second pilot)
Economic benefits like Saving of crew salaries Expenses and training costs Reduction in weigh-more passengers or longer range on less fuel

IN THE MILITARY CASE


A single seat fighter or strike (attack) aircraft is lighter Costs less than an equivalent two seat version Elimination of the second crew member (navigator/observer/crew member) Reduction in training costs

OTHER VERY IMPORTANT DRIVERS FOR AVIONICS SYSTEMS ARE


Increased safety Air traffic control requirements All weather operation Reduction in fuel consumption Improved aircraft performance and control and handling and reduction in maintenance costs

In the military case, the avionics systems are also being driven by a continuing increase in the threats posed by the defensive and offensive capabilities of potential aggressors

COCKPIT DISPLAY Provides


Visual presentation of Information & Data from A/c sensors and systems PROVIDE THE PILOT WITH Primary flight information Navigation information Engine data Airframe data Warning information

MILITARY PILOT ALSO HAS WIDE ARRAY OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION VIEW SUCH AS
Infra-red imaging sensors

Radar

Tactical mission data Weapon aiming Threat warning

Head Up Display (HUD) Helmet Mounted Display (HMD)

Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) video picture


through HUD Head position sensor Night Vision Goggles (NVG) - HMD HMDs & Virtual cockpit Colored Head Down Display (HDD)
Multi-Function Display (MFD) with Multi -Function Keys (MFK)

Two way communication between the ground bases and the aircraft or between aircraft Communication radio suite on modern aircraft is a very comprehensive one and covers several operating frequency bands Long range - HF radios operating in the band 2-30 Mhz Near to medium range (civil aircraft) by VHF radios operating in the band 30-100 Mhz
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VHF and UHF are line of sight propagation systems

Equipment is usually at duplex level of redundancy


VHF radios are generally by triplex level on a modern airliner SATCOM systems in many modern aircraft and provide very reliable world wide communication

Essential for the crew to interact with the avionics systems


KEY BOARDS

TOUCH PANELS
DIRECT VOICE INPUT (DVI) CONTROL EXPLOITS SPEECH RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY

TOUCH SCREENS

Fully Connected Speech

Must Be Able to Operate in the Cockpit Environment Vocabulary size - required size is around 200-300 words
Speech template duration - Speech Template Duration is around 5 Seconds
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Vocabulary duration - Maximum duration of the total vocabulary is around 160 Seconds Syntax nodes - max. no. of syntax nodes required is 300 Duration of utterance - no restriction on the max. duration of an input utterance Recognition response time - this must be in real time

EYE TRACKERS
Improved target designation accuracy Data entry in conjunction with a helmet mounted display

TWO AREAS
AUTO STABILISATION (or stability augmentation) systems Needed for most swept wing jet a/c Lightly damped short period oscillatory motion FBW FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS Enables a lighter, higher performance aircraft designed with relaxed stability Good consistent handling which is sensibly constant over a wide flight envelope and range of load conditions

Continuous automatic stabilization of the aircraft by computer control of the control surfaces Auto pilot integration Care free maneuvering characteristics Ability to integrate additional controls automatically such as Leading edge slats/flaps and trailing edge flaps to generate additional lift Variable wing sweep Thrust vector control nozzles and engine thrust

Elimination of mechanical controls runs - friction, backslash


Small control stick Ability to exploit aerodynamically unstable configuration Aerodynamics versus stealth - the concept of reducing the radar cross section

Very high integrity, a failure survival system

Air Data Systems


Accurate information on the air data quantities Altitude Calibrated airspeed Vertical speed True airspeed Mach number Air stream incidence angle (angle of attack) Total air temperature

Attitude and heading information are essential for a/c mission


Autopilot Navigation system Weapon aiming

INERTIAL SENSORS
Gyros - mechanical - electromechanical - RLG-FOG Accelerometer AHRS Strap Down Gimbaled systems

ACCURATE NAVIGATION INFORMATION


Aircraft's position, ground speed, track angle (direction of motion of the aircraft relative to true north)

NEED FOR ACCURATE NAVIGATION


Effective operation of any a/c Automatic because of speed

Density of air traffic on major air routes to fly in a specified corridor defined by ATC authorities-3D-4D (time) - high accuracy NAV is essential & forms part of FMS

Contd.. For military operation - to enable the a/c to fly low & take advantage of terrain screening from enemy radar Use of weapon - released from several Kms away from target also requires an accurate knowledge of the a/c position in order to indicate the mid course inertial guidance of the missile. DR systems

Position fixing systems

Self contained and independent of external systems DR navigation systems used in aircraft are Air data/heading reference system - lower accuracy Doppler/heading reference systems - widely used in helicopters Inertial Navigation systems - most accurate and

widely used systems


Doppler/Inertial navigation system - combination

POSITION FIXING SYSTEMS


Range and bearing (R/) radio navigation aids

VOR/DME TACAN- Accuracy of 1-2 miles

HYPERBOLIC RADIO NAVIGATION SYSTEMS


LORAN C - positional accuracy of around 150 m 8 LORAN C chains comprising 34 ground station transmitters OMEGA - accuracy around 2 NM -VLF at 10 khz using 8 ground stations

GPS - most important & accurate position fixing navigation System Used by a/c, ships & land vehicles

Eqpt is passive & requires only a receiver


Accuracy

C/A code - 100 m


P- code 16m - position, 0.1 m/s - velocity

APPROACH GUIDANCE TO THE AIRFIELD/AIRPORT ILS, MLS


A full navigation suite on an aircraft include INS, GPS, VOR/DME, ILS, MLS
Many of these systems are at duplex level and some may be at triplex level

Radar systems

Infrared sensor systems


All weather, night time operation
Transform the operational capability of the aircraft

Weather radar
Installed in all civil airliners & in many general aviation aircraft To detect water droplets and provide warning of storms, cloud turbulence and severe precipitationaircraft can alter course and avoid such turbulent conditions It should be noted that in severe turbulence, the violence of the vertical gusts can subject the aircraft structure to very high loads and stresses These radars can also generally operate in ground mapping and terrain avoidance modes.

Modern fighter aircraft generally


Have a ground attack role as well as the prime interception role and carry very sophisticated multimode radars In the airborne interception mode, the radar, must be able to detect aircraft upto 100 miles away and track while scanning and keeping tabs on several aircraft simultaneously (typically at least 12 aircraft) The radar must also have a 'look down' capability and be able to track low flying aircraft below it.

In the ground attack or mapping mode, the radar system is able to generate a map type display from the radar returns from the ground, enabling specific terrain features to be identified for position fixing and target acquisition.

The term 'house keeping' management has been used to cover the automation of the background tasks which are essential for the aircraft's safe and efficient operation Such tasks include Fuel management. The embraces fuel flow and fuel quantity measurement and control of fuel transfer from the appropriate fuel tanks to minimize changes in the aircraft trim Electrical power supply system management

Cabin/cockpit pressurization systems Environmental control system Warning systems Maintenance and monitoring systems. These comprise monitoring and recording systems which are integrated into an on-board maintenance computer system. This provides the information to enable speedy diagnosis and rectification of equipment and system failures by pin-pointing faulty units and providing all the information, such as part numbers etc., for replacement units down to module level in some cases

Control and the efficient management and monitoring of the engines Electronic equipment involved in a modern jet engine is very considerable

It forms an integral part of the engine and is


essential for its operation

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Engine control electronics is physically mounted on the engine FADEC


Automatically controls the flow of fuel and respond to throttle command Control system ensures the engine limits in terms of temperatures, engine speeds and accelerations are not exceed and the engine respond in an optimum manner to the throttle command Full authority in terms of the control it can exercise on the engine and a high integrity failure survival control system is essential A FADEC engine control system is thus similar in many ways to a FBW flight control system

Other very important engine avionic systems include


Engine health monitoring systems which measure, process and record a very wide range of parameters associated with the performance and health of the engines

Give early warning of engine performance deterioration, excessive wear, fatigue damage, high vibration levels, excessive temperature levels etc