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Inter Planetary Network (IPN)

By MUKESH DHIMAN AJAY THAKUR

Contents

Introduction Objectives of IPN Challenges Architecture of IPN Communication Protocol Suite Issues in Transport & Network Layers Security in the IPN Future Aspects Conclusion

Introduction
Imagine ??? If I say a Hi to you and you hear it after

9 Hours !!!!!

Objectives
It provide Internet-like services across interplanetary distances in support of deep space exploration

Time-Insensitive Scientific data delivery Time-Sensitive scientific data delivery Command and Control

Challenges

Extremely long propagation delay High link error rates for radio-frequency (RF) communication channels Intermittent link connectivity Lack of fixed communication infrastructure Effects of planetary distances on the signal strength and the protocol design Power, mass, size, and cost constraints for communication hardware and protocol design Backward compatibility requirement due to high cost involved in deployment and launching processes.

Architecture

Architecture (contd )

Interplanetary Backbone Network


Communication among Earth, outer-space planets, moons, satellites, relay stations, etc.

Interplanetary External Network


Space crafts flying in groups in deep space between planets, clusters of sensor nodes, and groups of space stations.

Architecture (contd )

Planetary Network

Planetary Satellite Network


Satellites circling the planets provides relay services, communication & navigation services to surface elements. Includes links between orbiting satellites & links between satellite and surface elements.

Planetary Surface Network


Links between high power surface elements (rovers, landers, etc). Surface elements that cannot directly talk to satellites, organized in an ad hoc manner.

IPN Nodes (currently)


Agent Build and consume bundles Relay Agents, plus forwards bundles within or between regions Gateway Relays, plus do routing between regions

Example

Communication Protocol Suite

Current Space / Ground protocol used by CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems ).

Each component of the IPN may have to run different set of protocols to suite the environment. CCSDS protocol consists of 8 Layers Used for the Mars Exploration mission communications.

CCSDS Protocol Limitation


Although the current protocol is viable, there is a need to make the protocol stack adaptable to different environmental changes allowing integration of highly optimized regional network protocols. This leads to the proposed Protocol by Delay Tolerant Networking Research Group (DTNRG).

DTNRG Protocol Stack

The protocol replies on a middleware layer called bundle layer that resides between the application and the lower layers. The bundle layer resolves the intermittent connectivity, long or variable delay, asymmetric data rates, high error rates by using a store and forward mechanism similar to email. It uses per-hop error control which increases the probability of data transmissions.

DTNRG Protocol

Transport Layer Issues


Interplanetary Backbone poses the most challenging problems for reliable data and multimedia transport. The transport layer functionalities are necessary for reliable transfer and timely delivery of multimedia information. Most important challenges for the backbone

Very long propagation delay High link error rates Bandwidth Asymmetry

Network Layer Issues

Compatible with IPv4 and IPv6 Proposed Network Layer Protocol is ( SCPS-NP ), Space Communication Protocol Standards Network Protocol. Open Issues:

Distribution of topology information. Path Calculation Interaction with transport layer protocols. Epidemic Routing Sensor Web Project

Efforts:

Security Proposal

Assumptions:

Require: access control/DOS prevention Nice to have: data secrecy and traffic analysis resistance Approach: Capabilities created on per-bundle basis Used for authentication and integrity check

Small Comment on URLs


URL syntax: p://n1.n2nk/a p app access protocol, implies transport protocol and default port ID (enumerated type) n globally unique, hierarchical name, (arbitrary length) a locally significant identifier (unstructured) Two name spaces: one global, one local

Future Aspects

Conclusion
Actual implementation is not so easy to say because it needs a great requirement that Has not been satisfied until now. TCP/IP protocol cannot be used and totally diff will be used and that model can replace all TCP/IP model being used in the earth . Deployed Internets may or may not use Internet protocols.