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Graphene :Its role in electronic world.


Discovered at The University of Manchester back in 2004, by Professor Andre Geim FRS and Royal Society Research colleague Dr Kostya Novoselov. One atom thick Optically transparent Chemically inert Excellent conductor

The Processor

A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets computer program instructions and processes data. CPUs provide the fundamental digital computer trait of programmability, and are one of the necessary components found in computers of any era, along with primary storage and input/output facilities. Beginning in the mid1970s, microprocessors of ever-increasing complexity and power gradually supplanted other designs, and today the term "CPU" is usually applied to some type of microprocessor.

The 65nm Processor

The technology of today Benefits of the 90-65nm cross-over
Increase in multimedia performance (video, audio, data streaming) Two new layers of hardware based security (protection against hackers and viruses) Advanced manageability for IT (remote problem resolution) Acceleration technology that improves the speed for network traffic (faster download and communication)

The 65nm Processor

The 65nm technology
35nm gate length 1.2nm gate oxide NiSi for low resistance 2nd generation strained Silicon for enhanced performance

These features prevent transistor leakage and reduce power consumption

The 45nm Processor

Benefits of the 65-45nm cross-over
Twice improvement in transistor density Five times reduction in source-drain leakage power 20% improvement in transistor switching speed 30% reduction in transistor switching power Ten times reduction in transistor gate oxide leakage for lower power requirements and increased battery life More performance for exponentially less cost

The Future
Intel plans to use extreme ultra-violet lithography to print elements as small as 32 nm and beyond (expectations 2009) AMD and IBM will cooperate to devise techniques for manufacturing chips using the 32-nanometer and 22-nanometer processes (expectations 2009 and 2011) Other options include replacing the use of Silicon by other materials such as Germanium Another development relates to the use of Graphene

Why replacing silicon?

For the past four decades the silicon industry has delivered a continuously improving performance at ever-reduced cost Those breakthroughs were achieved by physical scaling of the silicon but in few years it approaching an end,in part because silicon is reaching its physical limit. The remarkable increase in computer speed over the last Physical limitations such as off-state leakage current and power density pose a potential threat to the performance enhancement that can obtained by geometrical scaling

AT the heart of the problem is the poor stability of silicon. If silicon shaped in elements smaller than 10 nanometers in size at this spatial scale all semiconductors including silicon oxidise decompose and uncontrol migrate along surface like water droplets on a hot plate.

The Use of Germanium

Why using Germanium?
As seen in class mobility is one of the most important characteristics for electronic applications According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, even with strain engineering, metal gates and high-k dielectrics, semiconductors with higher mobility will be needed to continue scaling beyond the 22nm technology node III/IV compounds such as InSb, InAs or InGaAs have high electron mobility but same hole mobility as Si which is an issue for p-MOS devices Germanium is one solution

The Use of Germanium

Atoms/cm3 Effective mass electrons (m/m0)

5.02 x 1022 0.26

4.42 x 1022 0.082

4.42 x 1022 0.067

Effective mass holes (m/m0)

Electron affinity (V)




Energy gap (eV)

Mobility electrons (cm2/V s) Mobility holes (cm2/V s)

1500 450

3900 1900

8500 450

Problems with the use of Ge

Germanium use will allow research and development to reach the 22nm node however: The low bandgap (0.67eV) and low melting point (937C) poses challenges for device design and process integration Ge wafers offer poor mechanical strength and are much more expensive than Si wafers For n-MOS devices the presence of specific surface defects directly degrade the channel mobility and limit the current drive

The use of carbon nano tube in future

The Use of carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes Carbon nanotubes is the recentally allotropes of the carbon.
Metallic nanotubes display quantized ballistic conduction at room temperature conductance can be controlled by applying an electrostatic gate Have already been used to make simple transistors and logic gates

Nanotubes many limitations
- limited consistency in size and electric properties - Difficulty integrating nanotubes into electronics efficiently - High electrical resistance at junctions between nanotubes and the wires connecting them. -there is no method currently avaliable to accurately place hundered of millions nanotubes where they would be needed in oreder to form integrated circuit -A lack of cirality control during production leads to a mixture of mettalic and semicounducting nanotube.

The solution Using Graphene layers or ribbons - Exact same properties as Carbon nanotubes with out the limitations.

Preparation of graphene
The materials were created by extrating individual atomic plane from conventional bulk crystal by using a technique called micromechanical cleavage. Depending on the parent crystal their one-atom thick counterparts can be metals semiconductors insulators magnets etc. Using carbon as the parent crystal in micromechnaical cleavage graphene is created.

Graphene layers
o o o

The graphene layers are only 10 atoms thick (Miniaturization) High efficiencies and low power consumption Devices made from graphene layers can be made using standard micro-electric processing techniques (Mass production of graphene devices)
Such standard lithographic methods

The Progress of Graphene Transistors

Many universities have created transistors from graphene, approximately 80nm The goal is to make these transistors 10nm where the devices will display ballistic transport.

IBM scientist have fabricated nano-scale graphene field effect transistors and demonstrated the operation of graphene transistors at the GHZ frequency range. They achieved a cut-off frequency of 26 GHZ for graphene with a gate length of 150 nm. The highest frequency obtained for graphene so far. By imporving the gate dielectric materials,the perfomance of these transistors could be further enchanced. They expect that THZ graphene transistors could br achieved in an optimized graphene transistor with a gate length of 50 nanometer.

Transistors made by the use of graphene

Eletrons move through graphene with almost no resistance ,generating little heat . What more graphene is itself a good thermal conductor allowing heat to dissipate quickly. Silicon transistors stuck in the gigahertz range but with graphene do a terahertz a factor of a thousand over a gigahertz.

Graphene can transport electrons extremily quickly which could allow very fast switching speeds in electronics. Graphene based transistors for example could run at speeds a hundered to a thousand times faster than today. Unlike all other materials, graphene remains highly stable and conductive even when it is cut into devices one nanometer wide.

Graphene transistors start showing advantage and good performance at sizes below 10 nanometers the miniaturization limit at which the silcon technology is predicted to fail. Being extremely thin and a semiconductors electrons move through graphene at extremely high speed .this is because they behave like relativistic particles that have no rest mass.


Problems with graphene

Graphene hasnt always looked like a promising eletronic material for one thing it doent naturally exhibit the type of switching behaviour required for computing . Silicon which can be switched off,graphene continuws to conduct a lot of electrons even in its off state. This is the main draw back

Early Graphene resistors leaked current


Working on single electron transistor using quantum dots to solve this problem.

Quantum dots at room temperature are not stable enough. No fabrication techniques available to produce the 3nm quantum dots needed for the single electron transistor. This requires the manufacturer to once again rely on luck to produce the right sized quantum dot. This brings us back to square one as it is a similar problem with nanotubes

Future computer

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