Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Modifications to Mendelian Ratio

Key Points
• Incomplete dominance and codominance
• Lethal genes
• Gene interaction
• Epistasis
• Polygenic inheritance
• Linkage
• Pleiotropy
• Incomplete expressivity & incomplete
penetrance
Modifications to Mendelian Ratio
F2 Genotipic Ratio
Monohybrid Genotype Frequency
Aa x Aa AA 1/4
Aa 1/2
Gamet: A a aa 1/4
F2 (Punnett Square)
A a F2 Phenotipic Ratio
A AA Aa Genotype Frequency
a Aa aa A_ 3/4
aa 1/4
F2
Mendelian dihybrid cross
Genotype Frequency AaBb x AaBb
AABB 1
AABb 2
Phenotype Frequency
AAbb 1
A_B_ 9
AaBB 2
A_b_ 3
AaBb 4
aaB_ 3
Aabb 2
aabb 1
aaBB 1
aaBb 2
aabb 1
Modifications in Monohybrid Cross

• Incomplete Dominance
• Codominance
• Lethal genes
Incomplete Dominance /
Codominance Snapdragon flower colour
(1:2:1 ratio)

Rr x Rr

RR Rr rr
1 : 2 : 1
Lethal Genes
(1:2 ratio)

Y, the yellow-lethal mutation in mice: a dominant visible that is also a recessive lethal.
Modifications in Dihybrid Cross

• Incomplete Dominance/Codominance
– in both pairs of alleles (1 example)
– on one pair of alleles (1 example)
• Gene Interaction (2 examples)
• Epistasis (5 examples)
• Polygenic Inheritance (1 example)
F2
Mendelian dihybrid cross
Genotype Frequency AaBb x AaBb
AABB 1
AABb 2
Phenotype Frequency
AAbb 1
A_B_ 9
AaBB 2
A_bb 3
AaBb 4
aaB_ 3
Aabb 2
aabb 1
aaBB 1
aaBb 2
aabb 1
Codominance in both pairs IAIBLMLN x IAIBLMLM
Genotype Phenotype Ratio
IAIALMLM AAMM 1
Genotype Phenotype
IAIALMLN AAMN 2
I I
A A
A
IAIALNLN AANN 1
II
B B
B
IAIBLMLM ABMM 2
I I
A B
AB
IAIBLMLN ABMN 4
L L
M M
M
IAIBLNLN ABNN 2
L L N
N N

IBIBLMLM BBMM 1
L L
M N
MN
IBIBLMLN BBMN2
IBIBLNLN BBNN 1
Incomplete Dominance in one pair Ddh1h2 x Ddh1h2

Genotype Phenotype Genotype Phenotype Ratio


DD/DdTinggi D_ h1h1 Tall, Smooth 3
dd Dwarf D_ h1h2 Tall, Sparse 6
h1h1 Smooth D_ h2h2 Tall, Hairy 3
h1h2 Sparse dd h1h1 Dwarf, Smooth 1
h2h2 Hairy dd h1h2 Dwarf, Sparse 2
dd h2h2 Dwarf, Hairy 1
Gene Interaction
Chicken Comb Shapes
(9:3:3:1 ratio)
a. rose, Wyandottes
b. pea, Brahmas
c. walnut, hybrid
d. single, Leghorns

Comb shapes in chickens of different breeds.


RRpp (rose) X rrPP (pea)

RrPp (walnut)

9 R_P_ walnut
3 R_pp rose
3 rrP_ pea
1 rrpp single
Gene Interaction Pig Coat Colour (9:6:1 ratio)

AABB x aabb
red white
F1 AaBb
red
F2
9 A_B_ red (interaction between A & B)
3 A_bb sand yellow (because of A)
3 aaB_ sand yellow (because of B)
1 aabb white (no A or B)
Modifications to Mendelian Ratio
Key Points
• Incomplete dominance and codominance
• Lethal genes
• Gene interaction
• Epistasis
• Polygenic inheritance
• Linkage
• Pleiotropy
• Incomplete expressivity & incomplete
penetrance
Epistasis (recessive)
Mice Coat Colour (9:3:4 ratio)
CCaa x ccAA
black albino
F1 CcAa
agouti
F2
9 C_A_ agouti (A determines agouti)
3 C_aa black (a determines black)
3 ccA_ albino (cc epistasis towards A_)
1 ccaa albino (cc epistasis towards aa)
Epistasis (Dominant) Cucurbita pepo
fruit colour (12:3:1 ratio)
AABB x aabb
white green
F1 AaBb
white
F2
9 A_B_
12 white (A epistasis towards B_ and bb)
3 A_bb
3 aaB_ yellow (B determines yellow)
1 aabb green (b determines green)
Epistasis Fowl plumage colour (13:3 ratio)

IICC x iicc
Leghorn Wyandotte
white white
F1 IiCc
white
F2
9 I_C_ white (because of inhibitor I)
3 I_cc white (because of I and cc)
3 iiC_ coloured (C determines colour)
1 iicc white (cc has no colour)
Epistasis Corn kernel colour (9:7 ratio)

AAcc x aaCC
yellow yellow
F1 AaCc
purple
F2
9 A_C_ purple (A and C present)
3 A_cc yellow (C absent)
3 aaC_ yellow (A absent)
1 aacc yellow (A and C absent)
SUBSTRATE X SUBSTRATE Y ANTOCYANINE

A Enzyme B

A Gene B
Epistasis Seed capsules of the shepherd’s
purse (15:1 ratio)

AABB x aabb
triangular ovoid
F1 AaBb
triangular
F2
9 A_B_ triangular (A and B present)
3 A_bb triangular (A present)
3 aaB_ triangular (B present)
1 aabb ovoid (A and B absent)
Only when both pathways are blocked by homozygous recessive
alleles is the triangular phenotype suppressed and an ovoid capsule
produced.
© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers
A & B completely dominant 9 3 3 1 Mendel’s cross

aa epistasis towards B and b 9 3 4 Mice coat


colour
A epistasis towards B and b 12 3 1 Squash fruit
colour
A epistasis towards B & b; bb 13* 3 Fowl plumage
epistasis towards A & a colour
aa epistasis towards B and b; bb 9 7 Corn kernel
epistasis towards A & a colour
A epistasis towards B & b; B 15 1 Fowl leg
epistasis towards A and a plumage
Polygenic Inheritance Colour of wheat kernels
(1:4:6:4:1 ratio)
Parents: AABB x aabb
dark red white
F1 AaBb medium red

F2 Genotype Phenotype
2 AABB DARK RED
3 AABb, AaBB MEDIUM DARK RED
4 AAbb, aaBB, AaBb MEDIUM RED
5 aaBb, Aabb LIGHT RED
1 aabb WHITE
Pleiotropy: A condition where
changes in one gene can affect
more than one phenotype.
Example: Phenylketonuria – a
disease caused by the deficiency
of phenylalanine hydroxylase
leading to accumulation of
phenylalanine in the plasma.
Clinical manifestation includes
fair skin, blonde hair,mental
retardation, musty odour.
Incomplete Expressivity is seen in cases where the
same genotype may, for unknown reasons, have
variability in their phenotypes. Example: Genetic
diseases such as diabetes.
Incomplete Penetrance is seen when an individual
with a particular genotype, for unknown reasons,
does not express the phenotype.
Modifications to Mendelian Ratio
Key Points
• Incomplete dominance and codominance
• Lethal genes
• Gene interaction
• Epistasis
• Polygenic inheritance
• Linkage
• Pleiotropy
• Incomplete expressivity & incomplete
penetrance
Berikan hukum-hukum Mendel. Terangkan
keadaan-keadaan yang akan memberikan
keputusan lain daripada keputusan Mendel.
State Mendel’s laws. Explain the conditions
whereby Mendel’s laws were modified.

Times New Roman, font size 12, single spacing


Maximum 3 pages (3 x 49 lines) excluding pictures

Last date of submission – 2nd August 2006


Population Genetics

1. Hardy-Weinberg’s law.
2. Allele frequency can be obtained in 2 ways: from the
population and from Hardy-Weinberg’s formula.
3. At equilibrium, genotype frequencies can be
determined by Hardy-Weinberg’s formula.
4. Factors influencing allele and genotype frequency.