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CELL STRUCTURE

AND CELL
Class 9th Teacher Trainer-
Submitted by:- Miss Harinder Kaur
 Alisha Student Trainer-
 Vanita Miss Rachna
 Jasmine
Under Guidance of:
Mrs. Kusum Lata
(Science Mistress)
CELL
The cell is the basic
structural and functional
unit of life.
DISCOVERY OF CELL

Cell was discovered by Robert


Hooke in 1665.
TYPES OF CELL:-
EUKARYOTIC CELL
PROKARYOTIC CELL
PROKARYOTIC CELL:-
 They are the cells which have primitive organization of
genetic material. their “DNA” is not enclosed in a nuclear
membrane e.g.: BACTERIA HUMAN RBC etc.
EUKARYOTIC CELL:-
 In the cells of plants and animals the genetic
material is located within the nuclear
membrane.
STRUCTURE OF CELL
Cells fall into one of two categories:
prokaryotic or eukaryotic (see
Prokaryote). In a prokaryotic cell,
found only in bacteria and
archaebacteria, all the components,
including the DNA, mingle freely in
the cell’s interior, a single
compartment.
CELL WALL

 In plant cell the outer membrane is enclosed


by a rigid cellulose covering called cell wall.

 Functions:-
1. It provides a definite shape to the cell.
2. It provides rigidity to the cell.
CELL MEMBRANE
 It is the membranous covering of the
protoplasm (inner material) of the cell. It
regulates the entry and exit ions and
molecules in and out of the cells.
 Functions:-
3. It allows exchange of specific materials.
4. Plasma membrane binds the semi-fluid
content of the cells.
CYTOPLASM

 The space between the plasma membrane & the


nucleus is filled by an amorphous, homogenous,
colloidal liquid called cytoplasmic matrix.
 Functions:-
1.It helps in exchange of materials between
different cell organelles.
2.Breaking down of glucose takes place in the
cytoplasm.
NUCLEUS
 The dense spherical mass in the cytoplasm is
called nucleus. It contains chromosomes
which are the bearer of hereditary
characteristics called genes. It controls the
activities of the cell.
 Functions:-
1. Nucleus controls cell metabolism & other
activities of the cell.
2. It directs cell differentiation & cell
replication.
CELL ORGANELLAES

 Inside the cytoplasm there are other minute


bodies which perform different functions
called cell organelles. These are as under:
RIBOSOMES

 These are sites for the synthesis of proteins.


 Function:-
Ribosome help in protein synthesis inside
the cell. Hence they are called protein
factories of the cell.
MITOCHONDRIA
 These are the sites for the production of energy
rich molecules & are, therefore called ‘power
house’ of the cell.
 Functions:-
1. Mitochondria provide important intermediates for
the synthesis of several biochemicals like
chlorophyll, cytochromes etc.
2. Synthesis of many amino acids occur in
mitochondria.
3. This is the site for the oxidation glucose to
provide energy in the form of ATP.
GOLGI BODIES
 It is present around or above the centrioles
in all eukaryotic cells except mammalian
RBC’s & mature sperms.
 Function:-
1. It helps in the storage of secretary
products.
2. It helps in the formation of cell plate
during cell division.
PLASTIDS

 These organelles are found only in plant


cell. Plastids are of three types-
1. Chromoplasts
2. Chloroplasts
3. Leucoplast
1.Chromoplasts:-contain fat soluble, yellow, orange or red
colored pigment. They provide color to flowers & fruits,
chromoplasts are formed either from fruits leucoplasts or
chromoplasts. These are found in leaves, flowers, fruits etc.
2. Chloroplasts:-are green plastids which possess
photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll, which is responsible for
food preparation by photosynthesis.
3. Leucoplast:-are colourless plastids. THEY STORE THE
RESERVE FOOD e.g. Amyloplasts store starch,
aleuronoplasts store proteins & elaioplasts store fats.
Functions:-1. Chloroplast helps in photosynthesis so are
called kitchen of the cell.
2. Chromoplast provides color to flowers & fruits.
3. Leucoplast helps in the storage of food.
CENTROSOME

 It is a small naked protoplasmic structure present near


the nucleus. Centro some consists of two small
granules called centrioles.
 Functions:-
1. They help in spindle formation during cell division in
animal cell. Plants cells lack centrioles but the spindle
is formed without their aid.
2. They act as basal bodies and give rise to cilia and
flagella.
LYSOSOME
 The lysosome is a small vesicle surrounded by a
single membrane a variety of digestive enzymes.
These enzymes are released when the membrane
bursts, permitting it to digest cellular structure.
Thus lysosomes are involved in autolysis or self
digestion of cells after their death. So are also
called “suicidal bags”. Lysosomes are formed by
golgi apparatus.
VACUOLES
 These are fluid filled & membrane bounded spaces. In animal
cells vaculoes are smaller in size. In mature plants cells the small
vacuoles fuse to form A single large vacuole. Vacuoles are
bounded by A membrane known as tonoplast. They are filled
with A fluid called cell sap which consists of free water & A
variety of compounds including minerals, sugars, amino acids,
proteins & metabolic wastes.
 Functions:- 1. Vacuoles help the cell to remain turgid.
2. They play an important role in growth by helping in the
elongation of cells.
3. In protozoan like amoeba & paramecium the vacuoles help in
osmo-regulation.