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Szu-Ying Chen 2011.9.

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Outline
3rd Generation Network

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

3rd Generation Networks


History

Standards

International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000 (IMT-2000) specifications


1. Year 2000 2. 2GHz 3. 2Mbps

Proposed by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 1992

3rd Generation Networks


History
Standards
CDMA2000 W-CDMA TD-SCDMA WiMAX

Standards

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History

Architecture
Components Security

Defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)


Developed the extremely successful 2nd generation GSM standard

Evolved from the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

Base on Wide band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)


Transferred to 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) in 1998

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History

Architecture
Components Security

Architecture Core Network (CN) UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) User Equipment (UE)

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Components
Serving Network (SN) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Home Environment (HE) Access Network (AN) Authentication Center (AuC)

Architecture
Components Security

International Mobile Equipment Identity number (IMEI)


International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History

Architecture
Components Security

Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) A secret key K shared with AuC IMSI TMSI

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Design Principles 1. 2. 3. UMTS security will build on the security of 2nd generation systems. UMTS security will improve on the security of 2G systems. UMTS security will offer new security features.

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Security Features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Network access security Network domain security User domain security Application domain security Visibility and configuration of security

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Security Features

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Comparison
GSM Authentication Auth. Algorithm Single Direction A3, A8 (Not specified) UMTS Bi-direction F1~F5 (MILEANAGE)

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

Encipher Key
Conf. Algorithm Integ. Algorithm

64 bits
A5 (Not published) -

128 bits
F8 (KASUMI)

F9 (KASUMI)

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)
1. MS request login/service of SN

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

2.
3. 4. 5.

SN demand MS to register
MS sends TMSI to SN SN verifies the TMSI received from MS. If verification failed, ask MS to send its IMSI MS sends IMSI to SN

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History
Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)
6. SN sends Auth Data Req Msg to HN

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

HN generates n ordered authentication vectors (AV)


HN sends AVs to SN SN stores AVs to database and select on AV from them SN sends User Auth Req Msg to MS including RAND(i) and AUTN(i) MS verifies AUTN(i). If correct, MS computes RES(i), otherwise, MS reject the connection. MS sends User Auth Res Msg to SN including RES(i) SN compares the XRES(i) stored in database with the received RES(i). If the values are equal, the authentication succeed. if not, the authentication failed. After authentication succeed, MS could compute the value of CK, IK with the pre-shared key K through algorithm f3, f4 for the following communication.

14.

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


History

Architecture
Components Security
Principle Feature Comparison Mechanism

Authentication Vector 1. Message Authentication Code (MAC) f1( SQN, AMF,


RAND, K )

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

eXpected RESponse (XRES) f2( K, RAND ) Cipher Key (CK) f3( K, RAND ) Integrity Key (IK) f4( K, RAND ) Anonymity Key (AK) - f5( K, RAND ) Authentication Token (AUTN) - SQN ^ AK || AMF || MAC

AV(i) = RAND(i) || XRES(i) || CK(i) || IK(i) || AUTN(i)

Reference
[1] UMTS Security
Boman, K.; Horn, G.; Howard, P.; Niemi, V.;

Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, 2002

[2] An Introduction to Access Security In UMTS


Koien, G.M.; Wireless Communications, IEEE, 2004

[3] Securing a Wireless World


Yang, H.; Ricciato, F.; Lu, S.; Zhang, L.; Proceedings of the IEEE ,2006

[4]

[5] Network and WiKipedia