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References APA Style

APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa.

General Rules
Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by

authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list. Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M. Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title. Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books. Indentation: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent". Underlining vs. Italics: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals.

Books
Author surname, author initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of the book (edition number if it is not the 1st edition). Place of publication: Name of the publisher. Examples 1 author: Mook,D. (2004). Classic experiments in psychology. Westport,CT: Greenwood Robbins, P.(2005). Management. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
2 authors:

Kosslyn,M., & Rosenberg, R. (2004). Psychology: The brain,the person, the world (2nd ed.) .Essex, UK: Pearson Education.

Books with Multiple Authors


3 - 6 authors:

Barone, D. , Maddux, J. ,& Synder, C. (1997). Social Cognitive psychology. History and current domains. New York: Plenum Press.
6+ authors:

Mussen, P., Rosenzeig, M. , Aronson, E., Elkind, D., Feshbach, S., Geiwitz, P. , et al. (1973). Psychology: An introduction. Lexington, MA: Health.
Book with multiple editions

Woolfolk, A. (2001). Educational psychology (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Website Data
Author/editor surname, author/editor initial(s). (Year,

month and date of last update or copyright). Title of the page/document. Month, date and year of retrieval (if necessary), and the URL
Wollman, N. (1999, November 21). Influencing

attidues and behaviors for social change. Retrieved July 6,2005, from http://www.radpsynet.org / docs/ wollman-attitude.html

Association as author:
if an author / editor cannot be identified, use the

name of the organization that runs the website - if this is not available either, begin the reference with the title of the document Australian Psychological Society.(1998,July7). Letterhead with details: Consent form. Retrieved January 21,2002, from http://www.psychsociety.com.au/fr_frame.htm

No author and no date:


with the date of last update / copyright, if the month

and date are not given the year by itself is fine - use n.d. (no date) if no information is available
Career profiles. Psychology .(n.d.). Retrieved

September 18, 2007, from Http://www.graduatecareers.com.au/content/view/full/ 226

Articles in Periodicals

Journal article - print: Author surname, author initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number (issue number), page numbers of the article. Examples Gage, N.(1989). The paradigm wars and their aftermath. Educational Research, 18 (2), 4-10. Bull, C., & Palmer, S. (2003). Strategic issues in customer relationship management (CRM) implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 45 (2), 592602.

Magazine Article Example Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.

Personal Interview
Personal interview

Note: As personal communications are not recoverable (cannot be located by the reader), they are not included in the reference list, but are cited in text only. If your instructor indicates that you should include personal communications in your reference list, you can follow the form that follows. In-text citation: J. Marchese (personal communication, January 13, 2006) Reference list example: Marchese, J. (13 January 2006). Personal communication.

In-Text Citation
What needs to be cited?

When you write a paper in the social sciences, you often use and build on information other people have researched and compiled. It's important to give credit where credit is due. If you incorporate or refer to others' ideas or concepts in your paper, you must document each one using a citation and a Reference Page.

You need to cite:

Direct quotes Paraphrases (rephrased or summarized material) Phrases taken from sources Words specific or unique to the author's research, theories, or ideas Use of an author's argument or line of thinking Historical, statistical, or scientific facts Articles or studies you may refer to within your text

You do not need to cite:


Proverbs and sayings ("A stitch in time

saves nine.") Well-known quotations ("To be or not to be, this is the question") Common knowledge (Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, or oxygen's atomic number is 8, or Vincent Van Gogh painted "Starry Night".)

APA Style Citation


Crediting an idea when you paraphrase or draw upon a

source: Results of research on teaching suggest that classroom organization is a key to student learning (Jaber, Zeidan,2000; Haniya,2001). OR Results of research by Anderson (1992), Evertson, Emmer, Marshall (1986), and Good (1989), suggest that classroom organization is a key to student learning. According to Sabri (2000), . (Sabri,2000)

Quotations Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into text.
Dewey (1940) said, once is never enough when it comes to a good

idea (p. 79) and this characterizes the thinking of many educators. OR Once is never enough when it comes to a good idea (Dewey, 1940, p. 79) characterizes the thinking of many educators. OR Many educators agree with Deweys (1940) statement, once is never enough when it comes to a good idea (p. 79). [period after paren.] A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented five spaces from the left margin.