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Internal Combustion Engines The Diesel


Uses for internal combustion engines Thermodynamic principles involved Components and purposes of each Operation of systems

Two stroke engines Four stroke engines

The Diesel is a Hacker

Engine Uses

Emergency Diesel Generators (EDG) Propulsion

Certain amphibious landing ships Mine warfare ships Patrol craft Tug boats Small boats Outboard motors

Thermodynamic Principles

All internal combustion

Open cycle, heated engine Spark ignition Compresses air-fuel mixture Compressed ignition Compresses air only

Gasoline (Otto) engine

Diesel engine

Structural Components

Cylinder Block

Part of engine frame that contains cylinders in which piston moves Supports liners & head

Structural Components

Cylinder Head/Assembly

Serves to admit, confine, and release fuel/air Cover to cylinder block Supports valve train Engine frame section that houses the crankshaft Reservoir for collecting and holding


Oil sump

Moving Components

Three Groups according to motion

Reciprocating only (pistons and valves) Reciprocation & rotary (connecting rods) Rotary only (crankshafts and camshafts)

Moving Components


Acted on by combustion gases Lightweight but strong/durable Transfer heat from piston to cylinder Seal cylinder & distribute lube oil Pivot point connecting piston to connecting rod

Piston Rings

Piston Pin

Connecting Rod

Moving Components


Combines work done by each piston Drives camshafts, generator, pumps, etc. Absorbs and releases kinetic energy of piston strokes -> smoothes rotation of crankshaft


Moving Components


Intake: open to admit air to cylinder (with fuel in Otto cycle) Exhaust: open to allow gases to be rejected Used to time the addition of intake and exhaust valves Operates valves via pushrods & rocker arms

Camshaft & Cams


Increased pressure of combustion gases acts on piston -> converted to rotary motion Can be 2 or 4 stroke engines

2-stroke: 1 power stroke per 1 crankshaft rev 4-stroke: 1 power stroke per 2 crankshaft rev


Engine stroke

A stroke is a single traverse of the cylinder by the piston (from TDC to BDC) 1 revolution of crankshaft = 2 strokes of piston

Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

Intake stroke

Intake valve open, exhaust valve shut Piston travels from TDC to BDC Air drawn in Intake and exhaust valves shut Piston travels from BDC to TDC Temperature and pressure of air increase

Compression stroke

Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

Power stroke

Intake and exhaust valves shut Fuel injected into cylinder and ignites Piston forced from TDC to BDC Intake valve shut, exhaust valve open Piston moves from BDC to TDC Combustion gases expelled

Exhaust stroke

Four-Stroke Diesel Engine


Intake Compressi on

Power Exhaust

Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

1 power stroke every crankshaft revolution (vice every two w/ 4stroke) Uses pressurized air to simultaneously supply new air and expel combustion gases Scavenging

Exhaust valve open, inlet port exposed Pressurized air enters, expels combustion gases

Two-Stroke Diesel Engine


Intake and exhaust valves shut Piston travels from BDC to TDC Temperature and pressure of air increase Intake and exhaust valves shut Fuel injected into cylinder and ignites Piston forced from TDC to BDC

Power stroke

Two-Stroke Diesel Engine



Power (Intake/Exhaus t)

Two vs. Four-Stroke Engines

Two-stroke advantages

Higher power to weight ratio Less complicated valve train More efficient burning process As size increases, power-to-weight ratio improves

Four-stroke advantages

Gasoline vs. Diesel Engine

Supporting Systems

Air system

Supplies & removes air/gases Air supplied at constant pressure by blower/compressor Carburetor: mixes air & fuel in proper proportion (NOT on diesels) Fuel injector: sprays fuel in (more efficient)

Fuel System

Supporting Systems

Ignition system

Diesel has compression ignition Gasoline has spark plugs Uses fresh water and/or salt water to cool Provide lubrication and cooling

Cooling system

Lubrication system

Drive Train Direct or Indirect

Safety Precautions

Noise Fuel Flammability Maintenance Water Issues

Question s?