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DENTAL ETHICS

PRESENTED BY: DEEPTI WADHWA(JR-1)


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DEPARTMENT OF PERIODONTICS
SUPERVISOR : SUPERVISOR: Prof. N.D GUPTA DR. VIVEK SHARMA CHAIRMAN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR CO-

Introduction
Dentistry is a profession, which means it is different from general businesses. As a professional dentist, you are bound by an ethical code of conduct that is above and beyond codes that apply to a nonprofessional.

Introduction contd
Ethics includes/means :
v v v v

Moral conduct

Values Standards Professional and personal obligations during interacting with each other. As dental health care professionals, these qualities are important to us as we provide dental care to our patients.

Certainly Perception is Based on Action

Your actions and attitudes today will effect your future. Becomes Reality; Perception is Often Based on Appearance.

Perception

Look the Part/Act the Part

ETHICS

The word ETHICS is derived from the greek word ETHOS meaning custom or character. is the philosphy of human conduct,a way of stating and evaluating principles by which problems of behaviour can be solved. is concerned with evaluation of human conduct and with standards judging whether actions are right or wrong.

Ethics

Ethics

ETHICS
Definition

of Ethics:

Is as branch of both philosophy and theology, is the systematic study of what is right and good with respect to character and conduct. Ethics seeks to answer two fundamental questions; 1. What should we do? and 2. Why should we do it?

ETHICS
American College of Dentists Ethics are the moral principals or virtues that govern the character and conduct of an individual group.

DENTAL ETHICS
The object of ethics is to emphasize spirit (or intent) rather than law. Dental ethics applies moral principles and virtues to the practice of dentistry.

So dental ethics would mean moral duties and obligations of the dentist towards his patients, professional colleagues and to the society. These help support autonomy and self determination, protest the vulnerable and promote the welfare and equality of human beings.

Professional Code of Ethics


All the major professions (e.g., dental,
medical, legal) have a written code of ethics. These are voluntary standards of behavior, not laws, and they serve as a method of selfpolicing within a profession. The code of ethics of most professions has been revised on several occasions to keep it consistent with the times, but there has never been a change in the moral intent or overall idealism.

Reasons for a Code of Ethics

A systemic body of rules is needed in order that dignity and honour of the dental profession may be upheld,its standards exalted,its sphere of usefulness extended and the advancement of dental science promoted. demonstrate to the public the standard of conduct it can expect from its members.

To

Reasons for a Code of Ethics


To

increase the ethical consciousness and ethical responsibility of its members. guide its members in making informed ethical decisions. establish a standard for professional judgment and conduct.

To

To

Historical Background

Hippocratic Oath (5th Century BC) Declaration of Geneva International Code of Medical Ethics Declaration of Helsinki (1964)

Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI): International Principle of Ethics for the Dental Profession (1973)

Historical Background

Historical Background

Historical Background
International Code of Medical Ethics
Duties of doctors in general

Maintain high standards of professional conduct Practice uninfluenced by motives of profit Obligation to preserve human life Seek second opinions when necessary Confidentiality Obligation to provide emergency care

Duties of doctors to the sick


Historical Background
International Code of Medical Ethics
Unethical practices

Self advertisement beyond that authorized Working in other than one's field Fee-splitting A doctor should behave to colleagues as he would have them to behave to him Must not entice patients from his colleague

Intra-professional relations

Historical Background
Declaration of Helsinki (1964)

Includes recommendations guiding medical doctors to biomedical research involving human subjects. It was adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, 1964 & as revised by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, 1975.

DENTISTRY AS A PROFESSION
A

profession has been defined as an occupation involving relatively long and specialized preparation on the level of higher education and governed by a special code of ethics. The constructive aim of a profession is to do benevolence(good) of public. Dentistry is recognized as a profession.

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A PROFESSIONAL?


A professional is a member of a profession. There are four qualities that have been attributed to those in a profession.
Respect

for human beings Competence in his chosen field Integrity Primary concern for service and not fame or money.

ETHICS AND DENTISTRY


American Dental Association (ADA) Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct The dental profession holds a special position of trust within society. As a consequence, society affords the profession certain privileges that are not available to members of the public-at-large. In return, the profession makes a commitment to society that its members will adhere to high ethical standards of conduct. These standards are embodied in the ADA Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct (ADA Code). The ADA Code is, in effect, a written expression of the obligations arising from the implied contract

ETHICS AND DENTISTRY


In dentistry the code of ethics is the AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION PRINCIPLES OF ETHICS AND CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT. This code contains 5 major sections: 1.Service to the public and quality of care 2.Education 3.Government of a profession 4.Research and development 5.Professional announcement

Principles of Ethics
Principles

of ethics: They are the inspirational goals of the profession which provide guidance & offer justification for the code of Professional Conduct. of Professional Conduct: is an expression of specific types of conduct that are either required or prohibited.

Code

The Principles of Ethics


Nonmaleficence Benifecence Autonomy Justice Verasity

or truthfulness

Confidentiality

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


1.TO DO NO HARM(NON MALEFICENCE): It is considered to be the foundation of social morality. Iatrogenic disease is the name we give to doctor induced illness, and all of us in the dental field have seen overhanging restorations cause periodontal disease or failure to sterlize instruments cause infection.

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


2. TO DO GOOD (BENEFICENCE): It should be the role of dentists to benefit patients ,as well as not to inflict harm. The expectation of the patient is that the care provider will initiate beneficial action and that there is an agreement between the doctor and the patient that some good will occur.

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


2.TO DO GOOD(BENEFICENCE):
In the process of treating the patient what has to be weighed are the consequences of treatment versus no treatment. For example, questionable dental caries. It is not enough to say that it will not harm the patient. The point to be noted is whether it is of any good to the patient. The attempt should be to maximize the benefits and minimize harm. The doctor has a duty to perform patients welfare.

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


3.AUTONOMY: It is a principle that dictates that health care professionals respect the patients right to make decisions concerning the treatment plan. Patient should not be bystanders in the treatment but active participants. An autonomous person is an individual capable of deliberation about personal goals and acting under the direction of such deliberation(think over ,or discuss carefully).

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


3.AUTONOMY:
Dentists

sometimes attempt to direct a patient toward a particular mode of treatment by stressing certain advantages and not mentioning disadvantages, this is unethical.In addition it may well become a legal problem.

Informed

concept,both a legal and an ethical concept ,is an essential component of a patients right to autonomy.

Patient Autonomy

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


INFORMED CONSENT: Agreement by a patient to undergo a medical or dental procedure after having an understanding of the relevant facts, benefits and risks involved in performance of that procedure.

The

process of informed consent,designed to show respect for persons,fosters their interests by empowering them to pursue and protect their own interst. should not be obtained with

Consent

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


4.JUSTICE: The primary duty of the health professional is service irrespective of class, creed etc. Justice demands that each person be treated equally. JUSTICE is often described as fairness or equal treatment,giving to each as his right or due. In providing dental care it is difficult to distribute services to all who are in need,but it should be the concern of health care professionals to see that

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PATIENT


5.TRUTHFULLNESS: The patient doctor relationship is based on trust. Lying shows disrespect to the patient and threatens relationship. The physicians had the right ,indeed the duty ,to withold bad news when they believed it would upset the patient.

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS PROFESSION and PROFESSIONAL COLLEAGUES
The dentist has to be

Sober, courteous, sympathetic,helpful,modest and punctual. He has to be morally,mentally and phsically clean. It is obligatory to enroll in societies and be updated in knowledge and skills. It is unethical to put down another dentist to the patient. It is not duty bound on the dentist to treat the family of his fellow professionals without charge,but it is professional courtesy.

Unethical practices towards profession

Paying or accepting commisions. of charges in order to solicit patients. the planned treatment is beyond the dentists skill,the patient is not reffered to a consultant. case of an emergency consultation during the temporary absence of the patients dentist,temporary service is provided and the patient is not sent back. consulted,the dentist accepts charge of case without request of the reffering dentist. practices by others is aided.

Undercutting If

In

If

Illegal

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF THE DENTIST TOWARDS THE SOCIETY

The dentist has to assume leadership in the community on matters pertaining to dental health. People should be urged to seek care without influencing choice of dentists.

SOME UNETHICAL PRACTICES PRESCRIBED BY DCI


Practice

dentist.

by unregistered persons employed by the

Dentist

signed under his name and authority issuing any certificate which is untrue,misleading or improper. advertising whether directly ,or indirectly,for the purpose of obtaining patients or promoting his own professional advantage. of bogus Diplomas etc. commision.

Dentist

Use

Allowing

Dentists Pledge
I, as a member of the dental profession, shall keep this pledge and these stipulations. I understand and accept that my primary responsibility is to my patients, and I shall dedicate myself to render, to the best of my ability, the highest standard of oral health care and to maintain a relationship of respect and confidence. Therefore, let all come to me safe in the knowledge that their total health and well being are my first considerations.

Dentists Pledge cont.


I

shall accept the responsibility that, as a professional, my competence rests on continuing the attainment of knowledge and skill in the arts and sciences of dentistry.

Dentists Pledge cont.


I

acknowledge my obligations to support and sustain the honor and integrity of the profession and to conduct myself in all endeavors such that I shall merit the respect of my patients, colleagues and my community.

Dentists Pledge Cont..


I

further commit myself to the betterment of my community for the benefit of all society. I shall faithfully observe the Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct set forth by the profession. All this I pledge with pride in my commitment to the profession and public it serves.

CONCLUSION
The

dental profession holds a special position of trust within society. As a consequence, society affords the profession certain privileges, that are not available to members of the public at large. return, the profession makes a commitment to society that its member will adhere to high ethical standards of conduct.

In

CONCLUSION
They

recognize that continued public trust in the dental profession is based on the commitment of individual dentists to high ethical standards of conduct.

CONCLUSION

ETHICS MAY BE CONSIDERED AS THE HILLS OF HELP FOR MODERN MAN FOR ,THE MORE HE STUDIES ETHICS AND THE MORE HE USES ETHICAL CONCEPTS AS GUIDES, THE MORE HE IS STRENGTHENED IN CHARACTER. IS NOT AN OBJECT ,IT CANNOT BE BOUGHT ,SOLD OR BARTERED , BUT IT CAN BE SHARED.

ETHICS

Thank you