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Quantum Mechanics & Spectroscopy

Atomic Structure
JJ Thomson Model
Emi ssio n spe ctra

Atomic Spectra
Absor ption Spectr a

Rutherford Model

Unuse d Sectio n Space 1

The Smallest Indivisible Part Of A Substance Is Called As AN ATOM

Structure of the Atom

Evidence in 1900 indicated that

the atom was not a fundamental unit:


There seemed to be too many kinds of atoms, each belonging to a distinct chemical element (way more than earth, air, water, and fire!)
Elements combine with some elements but not with others, a characteristic that hinted at an internal atomic structure. The discoveries of radioactivity, x rays, and the electron all seemed to involve atoms breaking apart in some way



Electrons (discovered in 1897) carried the negative charge.

Electrons were very light, even compared to the atom.

Protons had not yet been discovered, but clearly positive charge had to be present to achieve charge neutrality.

Thomsons plum-pudding model of the atom had the positive charge spread uniformly throughout a sphere the size of the atom, with electrons embedded in the uniform background.

In Thomsons view, when the atom was heated, the electrons could vibrate about their equilibrium positions, thus producing electromagnetic radiation. Unfortunately, Thomson couldnt explain spectra with this model.

Experiments of Geiger and Marsden

Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden conceived a new technique for investigating the structure of matter by scattering a particles from atoms.

Rutherford Explanation & Model

Atom is composed of Tiny nucleus in which its positive charge and nearly all mass was concentrated, with electrons placed some distance away.

Fc = Fe

Rutherford Scattering Formula

N() =

N i n t Z 2e 4 2 r2KE2sin4(/2) 8

Gold Nucleus Radius= 3.0 x 10-14 m

Splitting of Wavelengths

Absorption Spectrum
When white light is passed through a a gas ,the gas is found to absorb light of certain wavelength .So we get a bright spectrum with dark lines on it. This is known as Absorption spectrum.

It is observed that for every line in atomic absorption spectrum of an element , there is a line in emission spectrum. However reverse is not true.

Emission Spectrum
When an atomic gas or vapor at small pressure is suitably excited , the emitted radiation has a spectrum which contains certain specific wavelengths only. Such a spectrum is known as Emission Spectrum.

Hydrogen spectrum

Lyman Balmer Paschen Brackett Pfund

UV Visible IR IR IR

R(1/12-1/n2) R(1/22-1/n2) R(1/32-1/n2) R(1/42-1/n2) R(1/52-1/n2)

Bohrs postulates
1)An electron moves in a circular orbit around the nucleus under influence of columbic force. 2) It is only possible for electron to move in an orbit for which its orbital angular momentum L is integral multiple of h/2 . L=nh/2 3)Despite the fact that electron is constantly accelarating,it will not radiate. 4)EM wave will be radiated when electron jumps from one orbit to other.