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WCDMA/3G TECHNOLOGY

---- Manee Kumar

1ST GENERATION TECHNOLOGY


First generation wireless technology (1G)refers to the first-generation wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunicatio n. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continusersd until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. .

1ST GENERATION SYSTEMS


AMPS Advanced Mobile Service Developed by Bell Labs First used commercially in the U.S in 1983 TACS Total Access Communications System Developed by Motorola First used in the U.K in 1985 NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone Developed by the Nordic countries and introduced in 1981

2ND GENERATION TECHNOLOGY


2Gsignifies second generation wireless digital
technology. Fully digital 2G networks have replaced analog 1G.

The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital.

2ND GENERATION SYSTEMS

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access


GSM Global System for Mobile Communications CDMACode Division Multiple Access

3G TECHNOLOGY

3G is the third generation of wireless technologies, like high-speed transmission, advanced multimedia access and global roaming. 3G is mostly used with mobile phones and handsets as a means to connect the phone to the Internet in order to make voice and video calls, to download and upload data and to surf the net. This telephone can give voice, data, pictures, broadband, maps, Google search, location, direction finder, mobile bank, TV, cloud computing imagine a full-fledged computer in your palm and what not.

3G- ADVANTAGES
3G phones promise : Improved digital voice communications Larger Bandwidth Higher Data rate Fast packet-based data services like e-mail, short message service (SMS), and Internet access at broadband speeds. Most carriers also expect consumers to want :

location services interactive gaming streaming video home monitoring and control and who knows what else, while being fully mobile anywhere in the world.

APPLICATIONS Mobile TV a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be watched. Video on demand a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone. Video conferencing subscribers can see as well as talk to each other. Tele-medicine a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated subscriber. Location-based services a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone, or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends

WIRELESS COMPUTING
WIRELESS GROWTH INTERNET GROWTH

- web access - e-mail - file transfer - location services - streaming audio & video

RF & DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY

MOBILE SOFTWARE

TECHNOLOGIES
3G is superior to the other digital standards like: GSM (Global System for Mobile) communications standard used worldwide And IS-136 TDMA standard used primarily in North America. 3G Technologies:

WCDMA or UMTS-FDD (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System - Frequsersncy Division Duplex)---Direct Spread CDMA2000 - 1x-EvDO/EvDV---Multi carrier UMTS TDD (Time Division Duplex) or TDSCDMA (Time Division - Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) ---Time Code

WCDMA CONCEPTS

Two modes TDD(Time Division Duplex) UL and DL on same frequsersncy - time shared Better for asymmetric traffic - internet FDD(Frequsersncy Division duplex) UL and DL on separate frequsersncies Better for voice like (symmetric) traffic

SPREADING

Spectrum transmission is a techniqusers in which the original signal is transformed into another form that occupies a larger bandwidth than the original signal would normally need. This transformation is known as spreading. Each user have its own spreading code.

Spreading of original signal is producing in wideband signal

SPREADING

Spreading

SCRAMBLING

At the transmitter, first spreading is done, then scrambling is done

Spreading codes need to be aligned for correct detection at receiver, so if only spreading was used in UL, signals from different users could cancel each other out is not synchronized which is practically always so.

Scrambling code need not be aligned to be separated at the receiver.

POWER CONTROL

Powers levels and capacity

Downlink

- More Transmission means more interference power to other users in same cell and neighboring cells, hence capacity

DL Transmission power should be minimized

- receiving Power at the users does not affect capacity - More users Transmission power means more interference to neighboring cells

Uplink

users Transmission power should be minimized

- More receiving Power means more interference to other users from same cell - UL Power control minimizes receiving power

POWER CONTROL

Near-Far Problem MS_c is closer and hence emits more powerful signal than MS_a and MS_b, BS can never decode what MS_a is sending BS should receiver equal power from all MS

3G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

Radio Access Network

Core Network

HOW IS 3G DIFFERENT?
While 2G stands for second-generation wireless telephone technology, 1G networks used are analog , 2G networks are digital and 3G (thirdgeneration) technology is used to enhance mobile phone standards. 3G helps to simultaneously transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging e-mail, and instant messaging. The highlight of 3G is video telephony. 4G technology stands to be the future standard of wireless devices.

REFRENCES

Introduction to 3g mobile communication: By Juha Korhonen www.3g-generation.com WWW.GOOGLE.COM WIKIPEDIA

THANK YOU