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Geothermal Energy

Dr. Akepati S. Reddy Thapar University Patiala (Punjab) 147 004 INDIA

Geothermal Energy
The resource Thermal energy contained in the rock and fluid of the earth crust Shallow reservoirs of hot water and/or steam Dry hot rocks may become commercial within 20 years European HDR project at Soultz-sous-Forets (France), 1997 first demonstration plant indicating feasibility Hot molten magma can also be exploited but technology is not yet available Clean and reliable resource both for heat and electricity Firm power 24 hours per day and 365 days per year over 98% annual availability factor For an installed capacity when compared with wind 3.5 times more energy supply is possible Historical uses Use of natural springs for bathing and cooking Piped heating systems in urope and USA

Geothermal Energy: Heat Pumps

Geothermal heat pump (geo-exchange system/ ground source heat pump) for air conditioning Carl Nielson of Ohio State University had developed Exploits the condition that subsurface soil maintains constant temperature (10-16C) throughout Includes three principal components An earth connection sub-system of vertically (100-150 m slim holes) or horizontally burried series of pipes called loop for circulating a fluid (water based anti-freeze solution) Heat pump subsystem Heat distribution subsystem Advantages of geothermal heat pumps for air conditioning (both heating and cooling) Has the lowest overall environmental costs among the available air conditioning technologies Most energy & cost efficient -requires 44 to 72% less energy Minimizes ozone depletion (water based anti freeze solutions) Produces less noise and ensures improved humidity conditions Widely installed in USA, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and other European countries

Geothermal Energy: Direct Use Applications

Uses of geothermal energy through direct application heating buildings growing plants in green houses drying vegetables fish farming pasturizing milk and other industrial uses melting snow on side walks of roads Technology for use through direct application as hot water Uses geothermal sources of temperature 38 - 149C Includes three principal components Production facility or well Mechanical system of piping, heat exchangers and controls Disposal system of used geothermal fluid (injection wells or storage ponds) >70% homes In Iceland are warmed by this energy source and there are 17 District Heating Systems in USA there are dozens more in the world

Geothermal Energy: Electricity Generation

Hot geothermal fluid (>150C), low mineral and gas content and shallow fluid aquifers are ideal for geothermal electricity Dry steam power plants (first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904) uses high pressure steam tapped from source to run turbine Flash steam power plants uses geothermal fluid of > 205C temp.) involves flashing of high pressure hot water tapped from the source, and using the flashed steam to run turbine Binary cycle power plants uses geothermal fluid of <205C hot geothermal fluid is used to boil a second fluid and resultant high pressure vapours are used to run turbine Geothermic fluids for electric power generation Drilling deeper wells and tapping steam or very hot water (> 205C) or moderately hot water (150 - 205C) Drilling into hot dry rock, injecting cold water and extracting steam or hot water (Hot Dry Rock Technology) Recovering heat directly from the magma (technology is still not available) Hot water requirements are 450-600 gpm/MW; land requirements are <8 acres/MW

Economic & Environmental Considerations

Disadvantages and problems associated with geothermal power Geological risk - surface subsidence from extraction of geothermal fluid reinjection of the used fluid can be solution Availability of high enthalpy resources suitable for power generation are geographically restricted - Hot dry rock technology may remove the barrier of geographical availability High initial investment specially for drilling Emission of noxious gases like H2S and generation of solid and liquid wastes (silica & iron deposits and brines) Cost of geothermal electricity ranges between 5 and 8 cents/kWh Developmental costs are $3000 to 5000/kW for smaller plants and $1500 to 2500/kW for larger plants Operating and maintenance costs are 1.5 to 4.5 cents/kWh Privately owned (55MW) geothermal power plant at McLachlan, New Zealand (1997) indicates cost competitiveness Geothermal fluids may contain sulfur, gold, silver, zinc, mercury, etc., metals Geothermal fluid of Salton sea has 160,000 ppm salts mainly of chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium and iron Some of the geothermal power plants may produce sludges that require disposal Byproducts can be recovered from the thermal fluids and sludges (sulfur, Zinc, etc.)

Installed capacity of Geo-thermal Electricity

USA Philippines Italy Mexico Indonesia Japan New Zealand Iceland Costa Rica El Salvador Total

1990 (in MW) 1995 (in MW) 1998 (in MW)

2775 891 545 700 145 215 283 45 0 95 5867 2817 1191 632 753 310 414 286 49 55 105 6797 2850 1848 769 743 590 530 345 140 120 105 8240

Potential is believed to be unlimited Survey to find thermal wells and springs, geothermal resource areas and direct use sites is very much needed Technologies are available to probe even beyond 10 miles deep for geothermal energy

Worldwide Installed Geothermal Electric Capacity

1973 1980 was a rapid growth period over 30 countries had power stations Average annual growth in installation capacity was 8.5% Growth in the installed capacity touched 14% per year 1985 to 1995 was a period of stagnation Since 2000 it is again growing rapidly

Geothermal Energy Use in 1996

Electricity Generation
Region Africa North America South America Asia Europe Middle East Oceania Total World Installed capacity (MW) 45 3824 1 Annual output (GWh) 390 22962 4 Annual Load factor 99% 68% 60% Installed capacity (MW) 228 2248 12

Direct Use
Annual output (GWh) 1561 4217 32 Load factor 78% 21% 30%

2337 584 --258 7049

12414 4191 --2092 42053

60% 82% -92% 68%

2953 4870 59
275 10645

10561 16939 397

1866 35573

41% 40% 77%

77% 38%

Installed Geothermal Electricity Capacity at end-1996: Regional Distribution

Indonesia and Philippines are major players 18% of the electricity, in 1996 in Philippines is obtained from geothermal

Emission of Pollutants during Electricity Generation from Different Sources