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Fly Ash Handling System in a powerplant (500MW)

Content
Classification of Ash Bottom Ash Fly Ash
Wet System Dry System

Vacuum Pump TAC Ash Silo

WHAT IS ASH?
Ash is the residue remaining after the coal has been incinerated to constant weight under standard conditions. Ash is oxidised form of the mineral matters present in coal. Typical ash composition : SiO , Al O , Fe O , 2 2 3 2 3 CaO, MgO etc. Coal with more SiO & Al O , Ash MP > 1400C 2 2 3 Coal with more Fe O , CaO & MgO, Ash MP < 2 3 1100C
April 27, 2012 3

Why Ash Handling?


Ash content of Indian coal used in power station is about 30 to 40 %. A typical 2000 MW station produce around 9000T to 12000T of ash per day. This huge amount of ash needs to be disposed off continuously. Necessary care to be taken for preventing pollution.

Classification of Ash

Bottom Ash Wet System Wet System

Fly Ash

Dry System

Ash volumes and properties


Furnace
(1300 - 1500C)
Economizer Air preheater APH

ESP
Electrostatic Precipitator

Stack

Stage A: 80 %

Stage B: 17 %

Pulverized Coal

100 %

Coal

Bottom Ash Eco Ash

APH Ash Fly ash

10-20 %

1%

1%

80-90 % Ash

Stage C: 3 %

Wet FA Handling System


FA is collected from Air heater hopper, Eco hopper and ESP hopper. In Flushing apparatus system ash is allowed to fall in flushing apparatus under gravitation. Water jet in flushing apparatus carries away the ash to FA trench High pressure jets further carries it to FA sump. Series pumping carries the ash slurry to FA pond.

ESP DE-ASHING (WET ASH SYSTEM )


A2 A1
ESP Hoppers

Water from FAHP

Wetting head
Water from FAHP Water from FAHP Air washer unit Air washer unit

Vac. p/p

Collector Tank

Water from FAHP

Collector Tank

Water from FAHP

ASH INTAKE V/V

AIR INTAKE V/V

TO TRENCH

Pneumatic Conveying Technology


Pneumatic conveying systems are eminently suitable for transport of powdered and granular materials in factory, site and plant situations. Modes of conveying: a) Dilute phase: If the material is conveyed in suspension in the air through the pipeline it is referred to as dilute phase conveying. b) Dense phase: If the material is conveyed at low velocity in a non suspension mode, through all or part of the pipeline, it is referred to as dense phase conveying.
contd.

In dense phase conveying two modes of flow are recognized. Moving Bed Flow: Moving bed flow is only possible in a conventional conveying system if the material to be conveyed has good air retention characteristics. Plug Type Flow: Plug type flow is only in a conventional conveying system if the material has good permeability. This type of flow is typically limited to the materials that are essentially mono-sized, since these allow the air to pass readily through

Dry FA Handling System


Vacuum pumps are use to convey ash from the ESP hoppers to Bag Filter and CTT In Bag Filter Dry ash is separated out from the air Through Transfer Hopper ash is transferred to Buffer Hopper. Blower are connected to the bottom of buffer hopper for fluidized air supply From buffer hopper, it is transferred to Transporter. From Transporter, Dry ash is conveyed through Pipe lines (Pneumatic Conveying). For pass A & B the line is AB similarly for pass C & D the line is CD.

TO WET SYSTEM

DRY ASH SYSTEM A1

A2

63 nos. bag

Bag Filter To Wet System

Inst air for purging bags

Vac P/P Transfer Hopper

Pass - A

Equalizing Line

To ESP Duct

CAP-1.83CUM

Buffer Hopper
CAP-37 CUM

Silo 1 88 nos. bag


CAP1000 CUM

Silo 2

Ash In Take V/V

Fluidizing Blower Transporter

Fluidised Dist Box

Air In Take V/V TAC Receiver

Fluidizing Blower

Rotary Feeder To Closed Truck Bunker

Rotary Ash Conditioner To Open Truck

Water Spray

Dry Ash Flow Control System

FROM AIR - PRE HEATER


TO WET SYSTEM ONLY TO DRY AND WET SYSTEM

A2

A1
Segregating valve

TOTAL NO OF ESP HOPPERS=128 32NOS IN EACH PASS (32x4=128) TOTAL NOS OF ESP FIELD =64

ESP HOPPERS

Air intake valve

Fly ash intak e v/v

PASS --A

Vacuum pump is use to convey the Fly Ash from ESP hoppers to the CTT (for wet system) and bag filter (for Dry system). Technical Specification: Type of pump :Water Ring Vacuum Pump Total No. of pumps : 8 Nos. Capacity : 4200M3/Hr Shut-off Vacuum : 500 mm of Hg Machine speed : 460 RPM Electric Motor : 90 Kw at 1440 RPM Seal water req. : 65 LPM Seal water pressure : 1 Kg/cm2

Vacuum Pump

Water Ring Type Vacuum Pump

Vacuum Pump

Vacuum Pump Layout

Instrument Air Compressor


NO - 2 /UNIT FLOW- 500 CUM/HR HEAD-70 mwc Power at motor Output-50 kw Inst. air is used For purging bags at bag filter

Fludising Blower
NO- 2 /UNIT FLOW-600 CUM/HR BKW- 9 POWER AT MOTOR- 9.28 KW HEAD- 4mwc Used for hot air Supply at buffer hopper

Transport Air Compressor


TAC is used to convey the Ash from Transporter to Ash SILO Specification:No. of compressor-6 Type- Screw Type Compressor FAD-2360M3/Hr. (AT 50 C & 100% RH) Motor HP/KW-362/270 Speed Of Motor-3000 RPM,3.3 KV Oil Sump Capacity-250 Ltrs.

Transport Air Compressor

NO - 3 /UNIT ( TOTAL - 6 FOR U # 3 &4) FLOW-2360 CUM /HR HEAD- 50 MWC BKW- 198 POWER AT MOTOR OUTPUT-202 .04 KW
USED FOR TRANSPORT AIR FROM TRANSPORTER TO SILO

TAC House

Transport Air Compressor

Dry Fly Ash SILO


Dry Fly Ash Silo is used to store Dry Fly Ash And to upload the Bulker Total No. of Ash Silo 3 Nos. Capacity :- 1500MT/2000M3 of each Average Supply of Dry Ash on Daily Basis 10 Bulker Capacity of Bulker 40MT

Ash SILO Driving Utilities


SILO Aeration Blowers:Used to provide hot air to the SILO Specifications:Total No. of Blowers : 3 Nos.(2W/1S) Air Flow : 850M3/Hr (FAD) Pressure : 0.45 Bar Ash Conditioner Booster Water Pumps:Used for Ash Conditioning Specifications:Total No. pumps : 2 Nos.(1W/1S) Water Flow Rate : 23M3/Hr Discharge Pressure: 5 Kg/cm2
Contd.

HEATER

SILO AERATION BLOWER

Rotarty ash conditioner booster water pump

Wash water Pumps:For Floor washing Specifications:Total No. pumps : 2 Nos.(1W/1S) Water Flow Rate : 50M3/Hr Discharge Pressure: 1.5 Kg/cm2 Drain pumps:To drain the water Specifications:Total No. pumps : 2 Nos.(1W/1S) Water Flow Rate : 80M3/Hr Discharge Pressure: 3.5 Kg/cm2

SILO for fly ash storage

SILO#2 SILO#3

SILO#1

Ash in Bag filter Level indicator Silo

Vent fan

Safety valve

Refractory Inv. cone Blower box Fluidized distribution box

Refractory

Air venting sys

Rotary ash conditioner

Rotary feeder